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however, revivalism remained mainly within the established churches and became 'free churches' within the boundaries of the state church. These were also important in the founding of home and overseas missionary societies in the second half of the nineteenth century, which became a distinctive feature of Nordic church life, and gave women a 'public arena' in which to express themselves.

Revivalism was not usually nationalistic. It was often locally based and had inter-Nordic and international links, as in the case of Swedish Roseni-anism (after Rosenius), which also made an impact in Finland, Norway and Denmark. An inter-Nordic ethnic revivalism occurred among the indigenous Saami population in northern Sweden, Norway and Finland, originating with the preaching ofthe Swedish minister Lars Levi Lœstadius (1800-61). Its followers experienced ecstatic phenomena such as jumping, clapping and sighing, and in 1852 a small group caused an uproar in Kautokeino in Norway by slaughtering the local sheriff and tradesman and flogging the pastor. Two of its leaders were executed.

Although the Nordic countries responded to religious revivalism in different ways, the attempts to repress such movements led to claims to political rights such as freedom of assembly and freedom of religion. For this reason we find an interaction between religious revivalism and political liberalism, which meant that the clergy lost control over the religious activity of the laity, and that freedom of religion was gradually realised. This development tookplace first in Norway and in Denmark in the 1840s, when the laws regulating lay assemblies were abolished in 1842 (in Norway) and 1849 (in Denmark). In Sweden and in Finland, however, the politics of religious unity were sustained through the nineteenth century. Here the main issue was not freedom of religion but the freedom of the church to govern itself. In Sweden full religious freedom was not guaranteed to everyone by law until 1951. It is important to stress that the development of revival movements implied an end to the religious unity of the state, and opened society to modern pluralism. In this way religious revivalism made an important contribution to the secularisation of the Nordic nations. Outside a smaller elite of radical intellectuals this secularisation, however, consisted not in dechristianisation, but rather in a religious and ideological individualisation, differentiation and pluralism.

Church, state and nation

While religious revivalism actualised the question of individual identity, the modernisation of the Nordic societies challenged the traditional identity of

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