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to the development of biblical criticism in Britain, and which lasted until the 1870s. At the same time, however, it was recognised in some circles that the Bible contained apparent contradictions and inconsistencies, which needed to be explained.

T. H. Horne's Introduction to the critical study and knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, of which several editions appeared in the 1820s, was frank in its admission of difficulties in the biblical texts.3 The Book of Joshua had suffered 'accidental derangement of the order of the chapters',4 as had 1 Samuel 16-18. Some events, such as the creation of male and female in Genesis 1:27, anticipated the fuller accounts at Genesis 2:7, 21-3, while Abram's departure from Haran in Genesis 11.31 preceded God's call to him to depart at 12:1.5 Apparent contradictions that critical scholarship explained by assigning material to different sources were noted by Horne. They included the discrepancies between the accounts of creation in Genesis 1:1-2.4a and in 2:4b-25, the taking into the ark of two pairs of animals at Genesis 6:19-21 as opposed to taking seven pairs of clean animals in 7:2, and the problem that Egyptian cattle were mentioned as existing in Exodus 9:20 whereas they had all been destroyed at Exodus 9:6. In all these cases Horne found ways of defending the unity and accuracy of the text, but by resorting to explanations such as that chapters or sections had become accidentally deranged, he was using critical methods to solve problems of historical criticism.

An event that caused a considerable stir in ecclesiastical circles was the publication, in 1829-30, of Henry Milman's The history of the Jews.6 Its appearance reflected the interest in the Jews which the conclusion of the Napoleonic wars had engendered in Britain, and its three volumes covered Jewish history from its Old Testament beginnings to Napoleonic times. As a piece of critical scholarship, it was innocent of the historical criticism that was developing in Germany, and given that it never questioned the historical accuracy of the Old Testament it should not have aroused controversy. Yet its first volume, dealing with the Old Testament period, caused a storm because it described the history of ancient Israel in a way that equated it with the history of any other nation. This did not mean that Milman thought that Israel's history was like that of any other nation. He believed, and endeavoured to show in his account, that divine providence had guided and sustained the people of

3 T. H. Horne, An introduction to the critical study and knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, 4 vols. (London: Longman, 1825).

6 H. H. Milman, The history of theJews (London: John Murray, 1829-30). See Clements, 'The intellectual background of H. H. Milman's The history of the Jews'.

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