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Jesuits of i860 increased to 359 by i9i0, while the number of religious orders operating in the country, insignificant in i860, reached thirty-four by this date.3i For the first time under liberalism, the regulars' expansion allowed the church to establish an important presence in education, largely through fee-paying schools serving middle- and upper-class students. The female orders provided personnel for work in a wide range of charitable institutions, a field of activity where the church's involvement had been minimal for years.

Expansion of the male orders intensified domestic missionary activity that had disappeared during the i830s and i840s and then reappeared sporadically during the i850s and i860s. Spanish Redemptorists calculated that between i879 and i93i they had conducted nearly 6,305 popular missions in rural and urban areas across the length and breadth of the country.32 In spite of their tireless energy, missionaries were most successful in those areas where one would have expected them to be, the still observant villages of the north. In the southern estate lands, they encountered opposition at worst, indifference at best. In Portugal, Jesuit missionaries made little headway as they worked in southern dioceses, while the Spanish Jesuit Francisco de Tarin, known as the 'Apostle of Andalusia', declared in one of his rare moments of depression, 'Everything is lost. All the zeal of a saint would be dashed to pieces', before the indifference that he encountered in the towns and villages where he conducted missions towards the close of the nineteenth century.33

Members of the religious orders were also prominent in the devotional resurgence that occurred from the mid-nineteenth century onward. Traditional devotions anchored in the patterns of village life continued, of course. But they were supplanted to some extent by the spread of devotions that were less oriented to the cohesive village community than to the cultivation of individual piety among rural and urban populations. Proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pius IX in i854 reinvigorated Marian devotions. Pious associations devoted to the cult of Mary multiplied, such as the Court of Mary in Spain with 50,000 members by i865, or the Arch-confraternity of the Sacred Heart of Mary in Portugal with i00,000 members by the mid-i880s. By the early twentieth century, certain devotional associations, such as the Apostolate of Prayer, promoted by the Jesuits in Portugal, had enrolled a million members, while in Spain, the Association of Three Marys and

31 Callahan, The Catholic Church in Spain, p. i90; Neto, O Estado, a Igreja, pp. 3i3-i4.

32 Telleria, Un instituto misionero, p. 436.

33 Neto, O Estado, a Igreja, p. 3i6, cited in Callahan, The Catholic Church in Spain, p. 260.

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