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expiation for the ungodly insurrection of the Communards begun at Montmartre in 1871.

In devoutly Catholic Belgium, with its complex medieval heritage and its tendency to religious conservatism, Pugin's polemics found a ready audience (a French translation of True principles was published in Bruges in 1850). When Jean-Baptiste Malou (1806-86) was consecrated bishop of Bruges in 1849 he wore vestments designed by Pugin himself and the bishop later commissioned Pugin's son, Edward, to build him a country retreat. Edward Pugin was also responsible for the design of the manor house at Loppem, built for the prominent van Caloen family, who employed Bishop Malou's nephew, Jean-Baptiste Bethune (1821-94), as an aesthetic adviser and designer of many of the buildings that they patronised. Bethune, a devout disciple of the elder Pugin, exercised a lasting influence on the Gothic Revival in Belgium. Despite a steady campaign of church building and church restoration, Belgium produced no ecclesiastical architect of the first rank. In this it differed from the predominantly Protestant Netherlands. Here, with the advent of full religious toleration in the early nineteenth century and the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy in 1853, the demand for new churches coincided with a mature appreciation of the architectural potential of the revived Gothic style. This appreciation was due to the influence of Pugin and, supremely, of Viollet-le-Duc and it fostered the emergence of a highly original Catholic architect, Petrus (Pierre) Josephus Hubertus Cuijpers (1827-1921). Cuijpers had trained in Antwerp and moved his practice to Amsterdam from his native Roermond in 1865. Like his French counterparts, his early parish churches are often built on a 'cathedralesque' principle (notably the twin-towered St Catherine, Eindhoven, 1859-67, and the now-demolished St Willibrordus-buiten-de-Veste, Amsterdam, 1854-66). The interior of St Catherine's is remarkable for its startling polychromy, though as his career developed Cuijpers's use of coloured brick and tile became both more subdued and more subtle in its effect. He also moved away from the conventional 'cathedrale ideale' plan towards an experiment with central planning. The great church of the Sacred Heart (the 'Vondelkerk') in Amsterdam (1870; now secularised) boldly combines a basilican nave with an octagonal crossing. Its interior is remarkable for the use of banded bricks of differing sizes and textures. His larger Amsterdam church, the Maria Magdalenakerk in the Zaanstraat of 1887, has a brick-vaulted chancel with a wooden vault over its taller nave. Cuijpers's son, Joseph (1861-1949), was responsible for the remarkably eclectic Catholic cathedral of St Bavo in Haarlem (1895-1930), a building which mixes elements of the Gothic, Romanesque and Moorish with an entertaining dash of art nouveau.

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