number of small landowners and rarely found when the land belonged mainly to a single landowner.19 Moreover, the religious dynamics of a place were different when there were three or more places of worship, rather than simply the parish church and a Nonconformist chapel. In the latter the difference between the Church of England and Nonconformity was likely to be foremost in the perceived identity of the two groups, whereas in the former there were often subtle social differences between the various Nonconformist chapels -farmers and their labourers, for example, or farmers and artisans. The presence of a Roman Catholic church immediately made the difference between Protestant and Roman Catholic important.

A survey of (Protestant) parishes in Germany in 1862 showed that very few had populations of more than 3,000: most were between 1,000 and 2,000 in size, and the largest parishes were in Prussia. However, the German population grew by 11.2 million in the thirty years after 1871, and there was significant church building after 1880. By the end of the century the number of new parishes had nearly kept pace with the growth of population. Statistics for churchgoing in 1891 showed that it was generally worst in those places where the distance to the parish church was greatest - east Prussia, parts of Franconia and Bavaria east of the Rhine, Schleswig-Holstein, the Hansa cities, Hanover, Frankfurt and other industrial towns. Berlin, however, was almost unique; the legal difficulties in dividing parishes resulted in around eight parishes with populations of more than 20,000 in 1871, with consequently low rates of churchgoing, up to a third of children unbaptised, and a significant increase in marriages outside the church.20

The difference between Catholic and Protestant was also primary in Germany. In some states the parish church in one village might be Lutheran and in the next village Roman Catholic; and in some towns, for example Landau in the Palatinate, the parish church was shared between Protestants and Catholics until the twentieth century, when a new Catholic church was built. More often, the post-Westphalia conditions required Catholics and Protestants to live side by side. The presence of the Roman Catholic Church was much more apparent in the west of Germany than in Prussia, apart from that part of East Prussia that had originally been Poland. Another reason for the change in the balance of Catholic and Protestant was the high level of Protestant emigration from Germany: between 1871 and 1897 2.2 million Protestants

19 Everitt, The pattern of rural dissent; Thompson, 'The churches and society in nineteenth-century England'.

20 Hope, German and Scandinavian Protestantism, pp. 497-508, 524.

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