Widely shared perceptions of the need for the reform and revival of mission societies and their members' activities or Christian standards in the field if Christianity was to expand, often led to an insistence on the separation of evangelisation and the essentials of the faith from empire and western culture. However, this path was neither possible nor appealing to all missions. The Anglo-Catholic Universities' Mission to Central Africa trod a very different road, combining insistence on episcopal and clerical authority with the Catholic emphasis on poverty, in the construction of an entirely new mission. Facing many problems in the mid-century, Scottish missions were no more immune than others to demands that they rethink the means of Christianity's
10 R. Bosworth Smith, Mohammed and the Mohammedans (London: Smith, Elder, 1874), pp. 31-2.
11 W. H. T. Gairdner, Douglas Thornton: a study in missionary ideals and methods, 3rd edn (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1909), p. 95.
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