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1856, one of a series of Eastern Catholic synods of the epoch at which Latin pressure sought to impose liturgical uniformity and Latinisation. Flourishing French Jesuit institutions served the Maronites in Lebanon the College of Ghazir, established in 1847, moved to Beirut in 1875 to become the renowned Universite Saint-Joseph (1881). The Chaldean Catholic Church,19 divided anomalously under two chief hier-archs, was united in 1830 under one patriarch, John VIII Hormizd (1830-8), resident in...

Musical trends and the western church a collision of the ancient and modern

To appreciate the part played by church music in the nineteenth century, specifically in continental Europe and Britain, it is vital to acknowledge a number of key issues, most of them inherited from the second half of the eighteenth century. The new secular age, heralded by the philosophical developments of the Enlightenment and major events such as American Independence and the French Revolution, signalled a sea-change in music's function within society, and the church, once the principal...

Missionary expansion in the Pacific

The explorations by Europeans, notably Captain James Cook, the Enlightenment view of the 'noble savage', and the growth of evangelical missionary interest in Britain all contributed to Protestant Christianity coming to the Pacific Islands at the end of the eighteenth century. The LMS sent its first missionaries to Tonga, Tahiti and the Marquesas, where they arrived in 1797. The Anglican evangelical Church Missionary Society (CMS) sent its first British missionaries to New Zealand in 1814. Both...

The evangelical expansion

Evangelical expansion in south India - from Tranquebar to Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli, Tirunelveli, and thence to Travancore (at Tiruvanthapuram) -reached its highest point during the early nineteenth century, and then spread to the north. With pietist roots, via Halle missionaries who had arrived in 1706, Vellalar Christian disciples from Tranquebar and Thanjavur had already spread a network of chapel-schools across south India. Each expansion, initiated by local leadership, was followed after...

The lens moral economy and agency

Certain concepts could be useful for the task. The notion of 'moral economy', employed by the social historian E. P. Thompson to describe the failure by those in authority in early modern England to meet traditional and customary obligations towards the ruled, may be helpful. Thompson characterised those expectations, embodied in values and roughly approximating to a consensus, as 'moral economy'. This concept could apply to the context of colonial Christianity in which the original motives...

Brian Stanley

It was not uncommon for Christian observers surveying the world in the years before the First World War to give voice to what may now appear as a vainly deluded sense that they were living in days of portentous significance for the future of Christianity. Although the consciousness of standing at a turning point in Christian history was most marked among evangelical Protestants who anticipated a missionary breakthrough in the Orient, Catholics were not entirely immune from the trend. Catholic...

Christianity as church and story and the birth of the Filipino nation in the nineteenth century

Throughout the nineteenth century, Christianity in the islands named after Philip II of Spain faced profound social change initiated by economic and political forces of modernity and culminating in the emergence of the Filipino nation. As Benedict Anderson's analysis of nationalism suggests, this emergence as 'an imagined political community' involved a complex cultural process rooted in changing perceptions of community, language and lineage.1 Christianity's reaction to these changes and...

Christianity and literature in English

In a letter written the day before he died Charles Dickens insisted that he had 'always striven in his writings to express veneration for the life and lessons of Our Saviour'. He felt constrained to add, however, that he had 'never made proclamation of this from the house tops'.1 Dickens was responding to a correspondent's complaint that he had made a flippant reference to Scripture in a passage in Edwin Drood. His forceful response is two-edged. He protests that his religious faith is implicit...

Five responses to the Enlightenment challenge

A traditional and widespread view of the nineteenth century is that Protestantism succumbed to a compromise with secular culture and ideals whereas Catholicism held out robustly but vainly against secular culture with the palladium of unyielding authority. Notwithstanding the evident truth in such a generalisation, there is a subtler picture. It would be more accurate to say that equally within Protestantism and Catholicism we can see both the drive to dialogue and reaction, although in...

Conclusion the enduring legacy of Ethiopianism

In 1964, the Nigerian Methodist theologian E. B. Idowu gave a series of radio talks, 'Towards an indigenous church', that sounded like a close reading of earlier Ethiopian themes. The indigenisation project that followed decolonisation so mirrored the design of Ethiopianism that the movement can be said to have nurtured the roots of modern African Christianity. Ethiopianism deployed Christianity as an instrument to reconstruct the development of African cultural and political nationalism. Later...

David Bebbingtgn

Charles Haddon Spurgeon epitomised the success of nineteenth-century voluntary religion. From the early 1860s to the beginning of the 1890s the celebrated Baptist preached regularly at his Metropolitan Tabernacle to congregations of around 6,000 people. His vivid, witty and uninhibited approach in the pulpit made him one ofthe sights of London. By 1865 his sermons had a weekly sale of some 25,000 copies and were syndicated to newspapers throughout the English-speaking world. Although he enjoyed...

Lessing Kant and Spinoza

Goethe and Schiller were at best cool towards Christianity but Lessing and Kant represent a profound knowledge of, and not uncritical interest in, Christianity. Lessing, the godfather of the German Enlightenment, in his Uber den Beweis des Geistes und der Kraft (On the proof of Spirit and power, 1777), criticised the traditional employment of the argument from prophecy and miracle from the testimony of Scripture, whilst his Das Christentum derVernunft (Christianity of reason, 1758) had...

No fire without smoke the texture of colonial Christianity as the backdrop to Ethiopianism

Certain forces from the home bases of missionaries combined with the emergent modes ofAfrican appropriation to reshape the face ofAfrican Christianity in the period from 1885 to the First World War. The Berlin Conferences of 1884-5 that initiated the partition of Africa by the European powers had an enormous effect on the relationship between the white missionaries and the Africans. The impact of colonial rule brought the gospel down to the grassroots and gave missionaries new opportunities to...

Ethiopianism myth and memory

Ethiopianism was a movement with many strands. It was rooted in the Bible specifically in the passage in Psalm 68 31 that prophesied that 'Princes shall come out of Egypt Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.' The prophetic reading of this passage is traced to African Americans who in the golden age of black nationalism from 1850 to 1925 crafted an empowering exegesis around this passage. It has inspired generations who refashioned it freely. The Ethiopian tradition sprang from...

John Rogerson

The defeat of Napoleon in 1815 marked the end, from a British point of view, of a significant episode in world history that had apparently been foretold in the Bible. According to Daniel 7 23-7, a fourth kingdom would arise which would war against the saints of the Most High for 'a time, two times, and half a time', after which it would be destroyed and be replaced by the everlasting kingdom of the saints of the Most High. British Protestant interpretation of Daniel 7 identified the fourth...

Religious Orders Australia

Carey, Hilary M., Believingin Australia a cultural history ofreligions (Sydney Allen and Unwin, 1996). Ely, Richard, Unto God and Caesar religious issues in the emerging Commonwealth, 1891-1906 (Melbourne Melbourne University Press, 1976). Fogarty, Ronald, Catholic education in Australia, 1806-1950 (Melbourne Melbourne University Press, 1959). Hutchinson, MarkandCampion, Edmund (eds.), Re-visioningAustralian colonial Christianity new essays in the Australian Christian experience, 1788-1900...

Guego Theologian

In 1870, Propaganda Fide charged Bishop Dupond of Bangkok to undertake the evangelisation of Laos but his death in 1872 prevented him from carrying out the task. His successor, Jean-Louis Vey (1875-1909), sent Prodhomme and Perraux to begin a mission in Kengkoi, and by 1880 there were 250 Christians. In 1881, Vey charged Prodhomme and Xavier Guego to begin another mission in Ubon. In 1885, there were 485 Christians and 1,500 catechumens, and three years later, there were 648 Christians and...

William J Callahan

The sale of their property would serve 'the public convenience' by increasing 'the resources of the state and opening new sources of wealth'.7 The sale of the regulars' property during the 1830s did not end the confiscation and sale of ecclesiastical property It continued, albeit episodically, in Spain until 1859 and in Portugal until 1869. By the time it was over, the church had lost the vast endowments, including those of the diocesan clergy, that had sustained it...

Catholic Christianity in France from the Restoration to the separation of church and state 18151905

The relationship between church, state and nation in nineteenth-century France was shaped in large measure by the legacy of the preceding revolutionary era. The French Revolution had begun with the blessing of the church but it ended in a seismic rupture. Whereas the clerg patri te of 1789 had looked to religion to bind the nation together, within a few years religion had developed into the single greatest source of national discord. The Jacobins proclaimed the Republic one and indivisible, but...

Agency and exit Ethiopianism in southern and central Africa

In southern and central Africa, three interesting dimensions intrigue first, the question of why Africans reacted with such confidence to the new face of missionary Christianity second, the different faces of Ethiopianism in the region, where the movement occurred independently, though rooted in the same principles as in West Africa third, the role of African-American black churches in catalysing and sustaining African radicalism. Certain regional characteristics equally emerged race was more...

Christianity in New Zealand

Settler influence and the Maori reaction In New Zealand, more than elsewhere in the Pacific, missionary beginnings had to contend with the impact of European migration. The Maori missionary church from 1840 was increasingly alienated by the pressures brought by the settler society and its denominations. Selwyn attempted to provide Anglican episcopal oversight for both the Maori and colonial churches. The settler demand for land and Maori defence of their independence resulted in skirmishes in...

Japan

Roman Catholicism, the second advent 1859-1910 Following the severe persecutions of the Roman Catholic Church in the early seventeenth century at the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868), the surviving Christians went underground, forming groups known latterly as Kakure Kirishitan (Hidden Christians). The Treaty of Commerce and Friendship which Japan concluded with France in 1858 permitted the arrival in 1859 of the first Roman Catholic missionary priest to Japan since the beginning...

World Christianities C1815c1914

This is the first scholarly treatment of nineteenth-century Christianity to discuss the subject in a global context. Part i analyses the responses of Catholic and Protestant Christianity to the intellectual and social challenges presented by European modernity. It gives attention to the explosion of new voluntary forms of Christianity and the expanding role of women in religious life. Part ii surveys the diverse and complex relationships between the churches and nationalism, resulting in...

Christianity and the creation of Germany

Shortly after the proclamation of the Second German empire in 1871, the future Prussian court preacher Adolf Stoecker rejoiced, remarking 'The holy, Protestant empire of the German nation is now completed.'1 This statement exemplifies the important, if often overlooked, contribution that Christianity made to the construction of modern Germany. The phrase itself recalls the 'Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation' that perished in 1806 and demonstrates the ongoing resonance of the imperial idea...

Sheridan Gilley

Historians of modern Christianity in western Europe, writing amid the chill winds of secularism at the beginning of the twenty-first century, may be tempted to apologise for their subject. Why write about something of diminishing importance, which has been in decline since the French Revolution No student of the medieval or early modern eras doubts the central role of religion, but modern historiography can get along without it. In fact, the historian of nineteenth-century Christianity need not...

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7 Church architecture and religious art Clarke, B. F. L., Anglican cathedrals outside the British Isles (London SPCK, 1958). De Maeyer, Jan and Verpoest, Luc (eds.), Gothic Revival religion, architecture and style in western Europe 1815-1914 (Leuven Universitaire Pers Leuven, 2000). Dixon, Roger and Muthesius, Stefan, Victorian architecture (London Thames and Hudson, 1978). Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Early Victorian architecture in Britain, 2 vols. (New Haven Yale University Press, 1954)....

Andrew Sanders

The architecture of two great ecclesiastical monuments of western Christendom can be seen as exemplifying the historicising trend in nineteenth-century art. The first, the Basilica of San Paolo fuori le Mura in Rome, rebuilt from the 1830s onwards, is an expensively confident expression of the last fling of neo-Classicism. The second, Westminster Cathedral in London, completed in 1903 for the newly established Catholic metropolitan diocese, is in the neo-Byzantine style. The architecture of...

Between east and west the Eastern Catholic Uniate churches

'Uniate'1 churches comprise Eastern Christians who either reaffirmed their never formally broken communion with Rome, or left their Orthodox mother churches to join the Catholic communion. They derive from all seven extant Eastern Christian traditions - Armenian, Byzantine, Coptic and Ethiopian and those of Syriac provenance East-Syrian or Mesopotamian, represented today by the Chaldean and Syro-Malabar Catholic churches, West-Syrian or Syro-Antiochene by the Syrian Catholic Church (another...

Protestant Christianity in Indochina until 1915

Protestantism was a latecomer to Indochina. The need for Protestants to evangelise Indochina was not noted until 1887 by A. B. Simpson, the founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance (CMA). His fellow Canadian, Robert A. Jaffray (1873-1945), was commissioned by the CMA for south China in 1896. From his headquarters in Wuchow, Jaffray carried out his ministry for China, Indochina and the neighbouring islands. In 1889, Jaffray travelled by boat down the Red River and arrived in Hanoi to...

Catholic nationalism in Greater Hungary and Poland

The Hungary which became a co-equal partner with Austria in the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1867 was more than three times larger than the truncated modern state which emerged from the First World War, and which excluded 3 million Hungarians. Hungary before 1918 included Slovakia (which became part of Czechoslovakia) and Transylvania, which was transferred in 1918 to Romania. Croatia-Slavonia, which was 70 per cent Catholic and a little over a quarter Orthodox, and was to become a part of...

Christianity in Laos 18151915

In the mid-fourteenth century a powerful kingdom called Lan Xang was founded among the Laotians, the majority of whom were descendants of Thai tribes, by Fa Ngoun 1353-73 , who introduced Khmer civilisation and Theravada Buddhism. In subsequent centuries Lan Xang waged intermittent wars with its neighbours and succeeded in expanding its territory. In 1707,how-ever, Lan Xang was split by internal dissensions into two kingdoms Luang Prabang in the north and Vientiane in the south. During the next...

Inveterate Snuff Taker

Participation and a compromise between Napoleonic and canon law, but the Romagna had been lay since 1800, and its more affluent citizens would never be happy again with government by priests. The politicani cardinals who supported Consalvi's reforms were outvoted in the conclave of 1823 by the zelanti who elected Consalvi's enemy, the conservative Annibale della Genga as Leo XII 1760-1829 ruled 1823-9 . He abolished lay participation in the higher levels of government, banned the waltz at...

Romantic Platonic monism

This visionary element which marks the early period of Romanticism is linked to a revival of speculative Platonism in the early nineteenth century, marked by grand interpretations of nature. T bingen - the university that produced Hegel, Schelling and H lderlin - had a long humanistic Platonic tradition cross-fertilised by indigenous south-west German mystical-pietist elements. One of the earliest known works by Schelling was a commentary on Plato's Timaeus. The revival of Platonism was not...

The speculative rupture of the later Schelling and Kierkegaard God discontinuity and the priority of existence over

The revolt against Hegel in the nineteenth century was deeply indebted to the later Schelling's critique of Hegel. Though Hegel is not usually thought of as a 'Romantic', especially not in Germany, he may be considered as the root of certain anti-Idealistic tendencies or movements in the later part ofthe period. Schelling has been called the 'Prince of Romantics' and there is a sense in which this apparently protean philosopher focused upon two themes and obsessions throughout his life which...

Fdp Religious Order

With the knowledge that the Holy Spirit had called them to this work, women were prepared to brave both external opposition and hostility and their own internal feelings of inadequacy. Nineteenth-century women, though, did interpret this call in different ways. For some, their ministry was exercised in spite of their gender, or because they were weak and not naturally suited to a public role. For others, like Catherine Booth, women had the right to preach regardless of...

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Expiation for the ungodly insurrection of the Communards begun at Montmartre in 1871. In devoutly Catholic Belgium, with its complex medieval heritage and its tendency to religious conservatism, Pugin's polemics found a ready audience a French translation of True principles was published in Bruges in 1850 . When Jean-Baptiste Malou 1806-86 was consecrated bishop of Bruges in 1849 he wore vestments designed by Pugin himself and the bishop later commissioned Pugin's son, Edward, to build him a...

Douglas Hedley

British security, power and imperial expansion between Waterloo and 1914 meant that many English writers saw the period as a golden age. However, even Englishmen were deeply worried throughout this period about radical upheavals. Europe was convulsed and lacerated by revolutions and wars throughout the nineteenth century the unsatisfactory rule of the reactionary Metternich the revolutions of 1848, followed by the unification of Germany and Italy the Prussian-Austrian and Franco-Prussian wars,...

Mary Heimann

Over the course of the nineteenth century, there was a widespread change in the way in which religious commitment was expressed and apparently understood by a majority of observant Roman Catholics. For most of the eighteenth century, all that had seemed necessary to lead what was generally considered to be a devout life was to be baptised to hear Mass on a Sunday and to take seriously one's duties of going to confession and receiving the Blessed Sacrament at least once a year 'at Easter or...

The Enlightenment legacy Socinianism and Spiritualism

The Romantics caricatured their religious predecessors as prosaic Philistines, men more content with their sinecures and cosy demonstrations of divine benevolence than with the life ofthe spirit or true religious experience. In fact bishops Butler and Berkeley, and the non-juror William Law, were Christian apologists of genius who could have adorned any age. Genuinely religious philosophers like Shaftesbury, Burke and Richard Price were just as typical of the Age of Reason as Bentham and Paine....

Contributors

Gabriel AdriAnyi is Emeritus Professor of Church History including East European Church History in the Catholic Theological Faculty, University of Bonn, and is Professor of Church History at the Lorand-E tv s-University at Budapest. He has written and edited a number of books on modern church history, including Geschichte der katholischen Kirche in Ungarn Cologne Bohlau, 2004 , Die Ostpolitik des Vatikans 1958-1978 gegen ber Ungarn der Fall Kardinal Mindszenty Herne Schafer, 2003 , Kleine...