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Schisms and divisions continued to plague the Armenian Catholic Church until the genocide (1915). Pius IX's bull Reversurus of 12 July 1867, aimed at putting an end to these problems, stipulated that henceforth Rome would choose Armenian Catholic bishops from a list of three names, that laity and lower clergy could no longer participate in patriarchal elections, and that patriarchs would have to be confirmed by Rome before exercising their office.15 This provoked a violent reaction, and several...

Japan

Roman Catholicism, the second advent 1859-1910 Following the severe persecutions of the Roman Catholic Church in the early seventeenth century at the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868), the surviving Christians went underground, forming groups known latterly as Kakure Kirishitan (Hidden Christians). The Treaty of Commerce and Friendship which Japan concluded with France in 1858 permitted the arrival in 1859 of the first Roman Catholic missionary priest to Japan since the beginning...

World Christianities C1815c1914

This is the first scholarly treatment of nineteenth-century Christianity to discuss the subject in a global context. Part i analyses the responses of Catholic and Protestant Christianity to the intellectual and social challenges presented by European modernity. It gives attention to the explosion of new voluntary forms of Christianity and the expanding role of women in religious life. Part ii surveys the diverse and complex relationships between the churches and nationalism, resulting in...

Christianity and the creation of Germany

Shortly after the proclamation of the Second German empire in 1871, the future Prussian court preacher Adolf Stoecker rejoiced, remarking 'The holy, Protestant empire of the German nation is now completed.'1 This statement exemplifies the important, if often overlooked, contribution that Christianity made to the construction of modern Germany. The phrase itself recalls the 'Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation' that perished in 1806 and demonstrates the ongoing resonance of the imperial idea...

Sheridan Gilley

Historians of modern Christianity in western Europe, writing amid the chill winds of secularism at the beginning of the twenty-first century, may be tempted to apologise for their subject. Why write about something of diminishing importance, which has been in decline since the French Revolution No student of the medieval or early modern eras doubts the central role of religion, but modern historiography can get along without it. In fact, the historian of nineteenth-century Christianity need not...

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7 Church architecture and religious art Clarke, B. F. L., Anglican cathedrals outside the British Isles (London SPCK, 1958). De Maeyer, Jan and Verpoest, Luc (eds.), Gothic Revival religion, architecture and style in western Europe 1815-1914 (Leuven Universitaire Pers Leuven, 2000). Dixon, Roger and Muthesius, Stefan, Victorian architecture (London Thames and Hudson, 1978). Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Early Victorian architecture in Britain, 2 vols. (New Haven Yale University Press, 1954)....

Andrew Sanders

The architecture of two great ecclesiastical monuments of western Christendom can be seen as exemplifying the historicising trend in nineteenth-century art. The first, the Basilica of San Paolo fuori le Mura in Rome, rebuilt from the 1830s onwards, is an expensively confident expression of the last fling of neo-Classicism. The second, Westminster Cathedral in London, completed in 1903 for the newly established Catholic metropolitan diocese, is in the neo-Byzantine style. The architecture of...

Between east and west the Eastern Catholic Uniate churches

'Uniate'1 churches comprise Eastern Christians who either reaffirmed their never formally broken communion with Rome, or left their Orthodox mother churches to join the Catholic communion. They derive from all seven extant Eastern Christian traditions - Armenian, Byzantine, Coptic and Ethiopian and those of Syriac provenance East-Syrian or Mesopotamian, represented today by the Chaldean and Syro-Malabar Catholic churches, West-Syrian or Syro-Antiochene by the Syrian Catholic Church (another...

William J Callahan

Liberal regalism reached its high point during the regency (i840-3) of General Baldomero Espartero, who was associated with the Progressive Party. Before the refusal of Pope Gregory XVI to approve the government's episcopal nominations, the authorities forced the appointment of diocesan administrators, sometimes at gunpoint. In i84i, the government proposed a radical reorganisation of the church involving the suppression of seventeen dioceses and 4,000 of the country's...

Protestant Christianity in Indochina until 1915

Protestantism was a latecomer to Indochina. The need for Protestants to evangelise Indochina was not noted until 1887 by A. B. Simpson, the founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance (CMA). His fellow Canadian, Robert A. Jaffray (1873-1945), was commissioned by the CMA for south China in 1896. From his headquarters in Wuchow, Jaffray carried out his ministry for China, Indochina and the neighbouring islands. In 1889, Jaffray travelled by boat down the Red River and arrived in Hanoi to...

Catholic nationalism in Greater Hungary and Poland

The Hungary which became a co-equal partner with Austria in the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1867 was more than three times larger than the truncated modern state which emerged from the First World War, and which excluded 3 million Hungarians. Hungary before 1918 included Slovakia (which became part of Czechoslovakia) and Transylvania, which was transferred in 1918 to Romania. Croatia-Slavonia, which was 70 per cent Catholic and a little over a quarter Orthodox, and was to become a part of...

Christianity in Laos 18151915

In the mid-fourteenth century a powerful kingdom called Lan Xang was founded among the Laotians, the majority of whom were descendants of Thai tribes, by Fa Ngoun 1353-73 , who introduced Khmer civilisation and Theravada Buddhism. In subsequent centuries Lan Xang waged intermittent wars with its neighbours and succeeded in expanding its territory. In 1707,how-ever, Lan Xang was split by internal dissensions into two kingdoms Luang Prabang in the north and Vientiane in the south. During the next...

Inveterate Snuff Taker

Participation and a compromise between Napoleonic and canon law, but the Romagna had been lay since 1800, and its more affluent citizens would never be happy again with government by priests. The politicani cardinals who supported Consalvi's reforms were outvoted in the conclave of 1823 by the zelanti who elected Consalvi's enemy, the conservative Annibale della Genga as Leo XII 1760-1829 ruled 1823-9 . He abolished lay participation in the higher levels of government, banned the waltz at...

Romantic Platonic monism

This visionary element which marks the early period of Romanticism is linked to a revival of speculative Platonism in the early nineteenth century, marked by grand interpretations of nature. T bingen - the university that produced Hegel, Schelling and H lderlin - had a long humanistic Platonic tradition cross-fertilised by indigenous south-west German mystical-pietist elements. One of the earliest known works by Schelling was a commentary on Plato's Timaeus. The revival of Platonism was not...

The speculative rupture of the later Schelling and Kierkegaard God discontinuity and the priority of existence over

The revolt against Hegel in the nineteenth century was deeply indebted to the later Schelling's critique of Hegel. Though Hegel is not usually thought of as a 'Romantic', especially not in Germany, he may be considered as the root of certain anti-Idealistic tendencies or movements in the later part ofthe period. Schelling has been called the 'Prince of Romantics' and there is a sense in which this apparently protean philosopher focused upon two themes and obsessions throughout his life which...

Fdp Religious Order

With the knowledge that the Holy Spirit had called them to this work, women were prepared to brave both external opposition and hostility and their own internal feelings of inadequacy. Nineteenth-century women, though, did interpret this call in different ways. For some, their ministry was exercised in spite of their gender, or because they were weak and not naturally suited to a public role. For others, like Catherine Booth, women had the right to preach regardless of...

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Expiation for the ungodly insurrection of the Communards begun at Montmartre in 1871. In devoutly Catholic Belgium, with its complex medieval heritage and its tendency to religious conservatism, Pugin's polemics found a ready audience a French translation of True principles was published in Bruges in 1850 . When Jean-Baptiste Malou 1806-86 was consecrated bishop of Bruges in 1849 he wore vestments designed by Pugin himself and the bishop later commissioned Pugin's son, Edward, to build him a...

Douglas Hedley

British security, power and imperial expansion between Waterloo and 1914 meant that many English writers saw the period as a golden age. However, even Englishmen were deeply worried throughout this period about radical upheavals. Europe was convulsed and lacerated by revolutions and wars throughout the nineteenth century the unsatisfactory rule of the reactionary Metternich the revolutions of 1848, followed by the unification of Germany and Italy the Prussian-Austrian and Franco-Prussian wars,...

Mary Heimann

Over the course of the nineteenth century, there was a widespread change in the way in which religious commitment was expressed and apparently understood by a majority of observant Roman Catholics. For most of the eighteenth century, all that had seemed necessary to lead what was generally considered to be a devout life was to be baptised to hear Mass on a Sunday and to take seriously one's duties of going to confession and receiving the Blessed Sacrament at least once a year 'at Easter or...

The Enlightenment legacy Socinianism and Spiritualism

The Romantics caricatured their religious predecessors as prosaic Philistines, men more content with their sinecures and cosy demonstrations of divine benevolence than with the life ofthe spirit or true religious experience. In fact bishops Butler and Berkeley, and the non-juror William Law, were Christian apologists of genius who could have adorned any age. Genuinely religious philosophers like Shaftesbury, Burke and Richard Price were just as typical of the Age of Reason as Bentham and Paine....

Contributors

Gabriel AdriAnyi is Emeritus Professor of Church History including East European Church History in the Catholic Theological Faculty, University of Bonn, and is Professor of Church History at the Lorand-E tv s-University at Budapest. He has written and edited a number of books on modern church history, including Geschichte der katholischen Kirche in Ungarn Cologne Bohlau, 2004 , Die Ostpolitik des Vatikans 1958-1978 gegen ber Ungarn der Fall Kardinal Mindszenty Herne Schafer, 2003 , Kleine...