by the reason, not after the usage of scholastic theologians. Proofs and logical demonstrations can be offered in confirmation of this assertion. For if this world which we know were not compounded of the effects of good and evil forces, and of the products of both righteousness and corruption in its inhabitants, the world order would not have been fulfilled completely. If only pure righteousness prevailed in the world, this world would not be the world we know, but another world. But since it was necessary that the world should be compounded after this manner and order, it follows that both righteousness and corruption prevail in it.

Second Proposition. The ancient philosophers held that " reward" is the supervening of a certain pleasure in the soul according to the degree to which it achieves perfection, while " punishment" is the supervening of a certain pain in the soul according to the degree to which it remains imperfect. The continuance of the soul in a state of imperfection is the state of remoteness from God: that is what is meant by being under a curse, suffering punishment, encountering Divine Wrath and Anger : the pain which the soul has to endure is a consequence of that imperfection. Similarly the perfection of the soul is what is meant by saying that God is pleased with it, that it is near and nigh unto God and close to God's Presence. Such then is the meaning of reward and punishment: this and nothing else.

Third Proposition. Restoration after death is the return of human souls to their own world: therefore God said, O soul at rest within thyself, return to thy Lord, well pleased and well pleasing (Koran Ixxxix. 27). These summary statements require of course to be supported by logical demonstrations.

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