Autobiography Of Avicenna

My father was a mail of Balkh, and he moved from there to Bukhara during the days of Nuh ibn Mansur in his reign he was employed in the administration, being governor of a village-centre in the oudying district of Bukhara called Kharmai-than. Near by is a village named Afshana, and there my father married my mother and took up his residence I 'was also born there, and after me my brother. Later we moved to Bukhara, where I was put under teachers of the Koran and of letters. By the time I was...

By Abu Ubaid alJuzjani

In continuation of the Autobiography From this point I mention those episodes of the Master's life of which I was myself a witness during my association with him, up to the time of his death. There was at Jurjan a man called Abu Muhammad al-Shirazi, who loved these sciences he had bought for the Master a house near where he lived, and lodged him there. I used to visit him every day, reading the Almagest and listening to him lecturing on Logic he dictated to mc al-Mukhtasar al-ausat The Middle...

Proof that He cannot be a Necessary Being in one respect and a contingent being in another respect Such a being in

As much as it is a contingent being, would be connected in being with something else, and so it has a reason but in as much as it is a necessary being, it would have no connexions with anything else. In that case it would both have being and not have being and that is absurd. Demonstration that He has no material and receptive cause The receptive cause is the cause for the provision of the place in which a thing is received that is to say, the place prepared for the reception of being, or the...

That there Is a Necessary Being

Whatever has being must either have a reason for its being, or have no reason for it. If it has a reason, then it is contingent, equally before it comes into being if we make this mental hypothesis and when it is in the state of being for in the case of a thing whose being is contingent the mere fact of its entering upon being does not remove from it the contingent nature of its being. If on the other hand it has no reason for its being in any way whatsoever, then it is necessary in its being....