On Prophecy

Now it is well known that man differs from all other animals in that he cannot enjoy a good life in isolation and alone, managing all his affairs without any partner to assist him in the fulfilment of his needs. A man must perforce attain satisfaction by means of another of his species, whose needs in turn are satisfied by him and his like thus, one man will act as conveyor, another as baker, another as tailor, another as sewer when all unite together, the needs of all are satisfied. For this...

On Prayer

When God had crcatcd the animals, after the plants, the minerals and the elements, and after the spheres, the stars, the unsubstantial spirits and the intelligences perfect in themselves when He had completed His work of origination and creation, He desired to finish His creation with the most perfect species, even as He had begun it with the most perfect genus. He therefore distinguished Man from out of all His creatures, so that as the beginning had been with Intelligence, so too the...

If the soul is frequently turned in towards itself it witt aoc be afiectcd by the physical circumstances of the body It

Be reminded and helped to do this by acts which arc in themselves fatiguing, and outside the usual habit of the reason indeed, the reason itself is stimulated by them to undertake these tasks. They fatigue the body and the animal faculties, destroying their inclination to take things easily, to be slothful and unwilling to go to any trouble, to dull the natural zest and avoid all discipline savp for the purpose of getting advantages in the form of bestial pleasures. The soul will be constrained...

To read Avicenna on theology as the attempt has been made to pcesemlumia the foOowitif pages is to be aware of standing

In the presence of one of the profoundest and most courageous thinkers in history. He was a Muslim, and the crown of his achievement as a speculative philosopher was to extend Aristotelian metaphysics, as interpreted by the Hellenistic commentators, so as to embrace the fundamental doctrines and practices of the religion he professed. His arguments required but litde elaboration to adapt them to an equally powerful defence of basic Christianity and Judaism. So far as the present writer can see,...

Autobiography Of Avicenna

My father was a mail of Balkh, and he moved from there to Bukhara during the days of Nuh ibn Mansur in his reign he was employed in the administration, being governor of a village-centre in the oudying district of Bukhara called Kharmai-than. Near by is a village named Afshana, and there my father married my mother and took up his residence I 'was also born there, and after me my brother. Later we moved to Bukhara, where I was put under teachers of the Koran and of letters. By the time I was...

By Abu Ubaid alJuzjani

In continuation of the Autobiography From this point I mention those episodes of the Master's life of which I was myself a witness during my association with him, up to the time of his death. There was at Jurjan a man called Abu Muhammad al-Shirazi, who loved these sciences he had bought for the Master a house near where he lived, and lodged him there. I used to visit him every day, reading the Almagest and listening to him lecturing on Logic he dictated to mc al-Mukhtasar al-ausat The Middle...

Proof that He cannot be a Necessary Being in one respect and a contingent being in another respect Such a being in

As much as it is a contingent being, would be connected in being with something else, and so it has a reason but in as much as it is a necessary being, it would have no connexions with anything else. In that case it would both have being and not have being and that is absurd. Demonstration that He has no material and receptive cause The receptive cause is the cause for the provision of the place in which a thing is received that is to say, the place prepared for the reception of being, or the...

That there Is a Necessary Being

Whatever has being must either have a reason for its being, or have no reason for it. If it has a reason, then it is contingent, equally before it comes into being if we make this mental hypothesis and when it is in the state of being for in the case of a thing whose being is contingent the mere fact of its entering upon being does not remove from it the contingent nature of its being. If on the other hand it has no reason for its being in any way whatsoever, then it is necessary in its being....