Expectations for the effect of income on the dependant variable, in contrast to the test on low-income countries, is positive since the form of animism practiced in the United States is generally distinguished by its lower time costs (for example, regular church service attendance is not a part of New Age practices). But since our dependent variable does not distinguish between New Age religions and more occult forms of animism, it may well be that for persons of low incomes, consumption of some of the more traditional forms of animism (e.g., Tarot cards and palmistry) will be inversely related to educational level. Thus we expect the income variable, LINC, to be positive on balance and the education variable, LHSG, to be negative. Finally, we have included two additional variables in our test, the percentage of Hispanics in each state and a dummy variable for the state of California. Hispanics have a long tradition, reaching back to pre-Columbian Indian heritage, of animistic beliefs. Further, most New Age and psychic movements have had their origins in the state of California. Both variables are expected to carry positive signs in our regression.

Regression results are provided in table 4A.3 and, in general, conform to expectations. Note that in the test results described in table 4A.3 we use a statistical procedure called a two-tailed test. A two-tailed test, in contrast to the one-tailed test used in our test of animist religions, is a procedure to evaluate a statistical regression that does not make a specific prediction about whether the cause-and-effect relation is positive or negative. (We may, of course, have expectations as to these relations). The data itself tells the story. In all tests the higher the percentage the

Table 4A.3

Impact of income, education, hispanic population on number of psychics, spiritual advisors, and mediums in forty-six U.S. states

Table 4A.3

Impact of income, education, hispanic population on number of psychics, spiritual advisors, and mediums in forty-six U.S. states

Dependent variable = |
LPPC | ||

Independent | |||

variables |
Coefficient |
Statistical error |
T-value |

Constant |
-37.16574 |
11.893 |
-3.125 |

LINC |
5.03145 |
1.1714 |
4.295* |

LHSG |
-2.99820 |
2.1598 |
-1.388 |

LPCTHIS |
0.23868 |
0.1459 |
1.636* |

DCAL |
2.70567 |
0.98332 |
2.752* |

Sources: Number of psychics by authors' calculations; all other variables, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2002.

* indicates significance at 1 percent level (two-tailed test statistics).

Sources: Number of psychics by authors' calculations; all other variables, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2002.

* indicates significance at 1 percent level (two-tailed test statistics).

level of significance, the more confidence we have in the results. It appears that income is positively and significantly related to the dependent variable, at least insofar as the latter measures less time-intensive New Age beliefs. At the same time the education variable is negatively, but insignificantly, related to the dependent variable signifying that at least certain types of animistic beliefs emerge from low-education (low-income) Americans. These results suggest some support for the interpretation that forms of animism and highly individualistic beliefs coexist among high- and low-income individuals in developed high-income societies. Finally our interpretation that Hispanic population and Califor-nians support animistic forms of religion is given strong support in the regression results of table 4A.3. These two tests of the determinants of animism and the use of psychics, preliminary as they may be, appear to suggest that full price, income, education, and demand shifters in general have an enormous impact on the form of religion chosen in both less developed and more developed nations.

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