Chapter

1 Jane Tompkins, West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), 228.

3 Alex Wright, Why Bother with Theology? (London: Darton, Longman, and Todd, Ltd., 2002), 64.

4 Kenneth Kirk, The Vision of God: The Christian Doctrine of the Summum Bonum (New York: Harper & Row, 1932), 104.

5 TomBeaudoin, Virtual Faith: The Irreverent Spiritual Quest of GenerationX (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1998), 76f.

6 Catechism of the Catholic Church (Liguori, MO: Liguori Publications, 1994), 417.

7 Walter T. Davis, Jr et al. Watching What We Watch: Prime-Time Television through the Lens ofFaith (Louisville, KY: Geneva Press, 2001), xii.

8 On the role of advertising in shoring up the "meta-myth" of salvation through consumption, see Dell de Chant, The Sacred Santa: Religious Dimensions of Consumer Culture (Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2002); Leigh Eric Schmidt, Consumer Rites: The Buying and Selling of American Holidays (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995); and Vincent Miller, Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture (New York: Continuum, 2004).

9 Oscar Wilde, The Critic as Artist, in Intentions (London: Methuen & Company, 1913), 100.

10 Joe Strummer and the Mescaleros, "The Road to Rock 'n' Roll," from Rock Art and the X-Ray Style. Written by Joe Strummer and Antony Genn. © 1999 by Universal-Polygram International Publishing, Inc. on behalf of Casbah Productions, Ltd./ASCAP. Used by permission of the publisher and The Joe Strummer Foundation for New Music. International copyright secured. All rights reserved. Before going solo, Strummer was the lead singer and songwriter for The Clash.

11 Martin Luther, Tischreden, quoted by Roland Bainton in Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (New York: New American Library, 1950), 267.

12 Charles Finney, Revival Lectures (Fleming H. Revell Co., n.d.), 5.

13 On the convergence of ring shouts and revivalist hymns, see C. Eric Lincoln and Lawrence H. Mamiya, The Black Church in the African American Experience (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990), ch. 12; and Albert Raboteau, Slave Religion (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 66-75.

14 For good histories of this transfer of gospel into soul and rhythm and blues, see Jon Michael Spencer, Theological Music: Introduction to Theomusico-logy (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991); Martha Bayles, Hole in our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994); and Steve Turner, Hungry for Heaven: Rock V Roll and the Search for Redemption (Downer's Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1995).

15 Another predecessor is the big top circus, which would roll in and set up outside of town and was well established by the middle of the nineteenth century. But the traveling circus itself borrowed elements from the earlier itinerant revival meetings. The Chautauqua movement, an important link between the camp meetings and the modern outdoor festival, began after the civil war. Originally a tent city on the shores of Lake Chautauqua in upstate New York organized for Methodist Sunday School teachers, it evolved into a college without walls where courses were offered in literature, science, economics and religion, with artists and musicians entertaining in the evenings. A good history on the Chautauqua movement can be found in Andrew C. Rieser's The Chautauqua Moment: Protestants, Progressives, and the Culture of Modern Liberalism, 1874-1920 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003).

16 Although Turner was inclined to describe rock music with the more diminutive term "liminoid" than to grant it the full status of liminality. One way to understand the distinction: "The liminoid is more like a commodity - indeed, often is a commodity, which one selects and pays for - than the liminal, which elicits loyalty and is bound up with one's membership or desired membership in some highly corporate group. One works at the liminal, one plays with the liminoid." Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play (New York: Performing Arts Journal Publications, 1982), 55. See also Victor Turner, "Variations on a Theme of Liminality," in Blazing the Trail: Way Marks in the Exploration of Symbols (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1992), 55, where he identifies rock music as a liminoid phenomenon.

17 Victor Turner, Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1974), 262.

18 The Burning Man Festival is a noteworthy exception. They don't accept corporate sponsorship. The event is funded through "participant sponsorship," and festival-goers are organized into rangers, drummers, art installers, bus drivers, journalists, greeters, and earth guardians to manage the event -reducing the need for the financial backing of corporate sponsors.

19 Jon Michael Spencer, Theological Music: Introduction to Theomusicology (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991), 81.

20 From a 1978 interview Dylan did with Marc Rowland: "'Blowin' in the Wind' has always been a spiritual. I took it off a song, I don't know if you ever heard, called 'No More Auction Block.' That's a spiritual.

'Blowin' in the Wind' follows the same feeling____I've always seen it and heard it that way, it's just taken me... I just did it on my acoustical guitar when I recorded it, which didn't really make it sound spiritual. But the feeling, the idea, was always, you know, that's where it was coming from." See <http://www.fortunecity.com/tinpan/parton/2/blowin.html> accessed February 9, 2004.

21 "Blowin' in the Wind," by Bob Dylan, from The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan. © 1962 by Warner Bros., Inc. Copyright renewed 1990 by Special Rider Music. All rights reserved. International copyright secured. Reprinted by permission.

22 Joe Strummer and the Mescaleros, "Get Down Moses," from Streetcore. Written by Joe Strummer, Martin Slattery, Scott Shields, Simon Edward Stafford. © 2003 by Universal-Polygram International Publishing, Inc. on behalf of Casbah Productions, Ltd./ASCAP. Used by permission of the publishers and The Joe Strummer Foundation for New Music. International copyright secured. All rights reserved.

23 U2, "Where the Streets Have No Name," from The Joshua Tree (Island Records, 1987). Written by Paul Hewson, Adam Clayton, David Evans, Laurence Mullen.

24 "(Are You) the One That I've Been Waiting For?" by Nick Cave, from The Boatman's Call (Mute Records, 2003). © 1997 by Mute Song, Ltd. Reprinted by permission.

25 "Shelter from the Storm," by Bob Dylan, from Blood on the Tracks. © 1974 by Special Rider Music. All rights reserved. International copyright secured. Reprinted by permission.

26 "The Secret Life of the Love Song," by Nick Cave. © 1999 by Mute Song, Ltd. Reprinted by permission.

27 "Bring It On," by Nick Cave, from Nocturama (Mute Records, 2003). © 2003 by Mute Song, Ltd. Reprinted by permission.

28 These songs appear on Van Morrisons's 1979 album Into the Music (Warner Bros.). The lyrics of the first song, "It's All in the Game," were composed by Carl Sigman, © 1951 by Bug Music, Inc. Used by permission. "You Know What They're Writing About" is Morrison's own composition. © 1979 by Polygram Division Default on behalf of Essential Music/BMI. Used by permission. International copyright secured. All rights reserved.

29 St Bonaventura, The Mind's Road to God, trans. George Boas (New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1953), 18.

30 "The Healing Room," by Sinead O'Connor, from Faith and Courage. © 1999 Promostraat B. V. Netherlands, Warner/Chappell Music Ltd. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Warner Bros. Music Corp. Reprinted by permission of Warner Bros. Publications US Inc., Miami, Florida 33014.

31 The Waterboys, "Strange Boat," from Fisherman's Blues. Words and music by Michael Scott. © 1987 Dizzy Heights Music Publishing, Warner/Chappell Music Ltd. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Warner Bros. Publications US Inc., Miami, Florida 33014.

32 Moby, "Into the Blue," written by Richard Hall and Mimi Goese. © 1995 Warner-Tamerlane Publishing Corp., Richard Hall, Pub Designee and LMNO Music. All rights on behalf of Richard Hall Pub Designee administered by Warner-Tamerlane Publishing Corp. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Warner Bros. Publications US Inc., Miami, Florida 33014.

33 "Summertime in England," by Van Morrison, from the album Common One. © 1980 by Polygram Division Default on behalf of Essential Music/BMI. Used by permission. International copyright secured. All rights reserved.

34 "Take Me Back," by Van Morrison, from the album Hymns to the Silence. © 1990 by Polygram Division Default on behalf of Caledonia Publishing/BMI. Used by permission. International copyright secured. All rights reserved.

35 Chocolat, directed by Lasse Hallström (Miramax Films, 2000).

36 As McCarraher defines the term: "a mix-and-match collage of beliefs appropriated from various sources that is the signature religious consciousness of consumer society." See his Christian Critics: Religion and the Impasse of Modern Social Thought (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000), 6.

37 Paul Ricoeur, The Symbolism of Evil (Boston: Beacon Press, 1967).

38 Ricoeur, The Symbolism of Evil, 102.

39 The Penitential of Cummean, in Medieval Handbooks of Penance, ed. John T. McNeil (New York: Columbia University Press, 1938, 1990), 116.

40 Ralph Waldo Emerson, "On Self Reliance," in Essays (New York: Hurst & Company, 1885), 48.

43 Philip Rieff, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith after Freud (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), 261.

44 Eva Moskowitz, In Therapy We Trust: America's Obsession with Self-Fulfillment (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), 5.

47 Kathleen S. Lowney, Baring our Souls: TV Talk Shows and the Religion of Recovery (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1999), 30f.

48 Carl Rogers, "A Therapist's View of the Good Life: The Fully Functioning Person," from On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961), 185.

49 Jack Kerouac, On the Road (New York: Penguin Books, 1957, 1979), 9.

51 Lowney, Baring our Souls, 111.

52 On this, see Lauren Slater, "The Trouble with Self-Esteem," New York Times Magazine (February 3, 2003), 44ff.

53 Richard Mouw, Consulting the Faithful: What Christian Intellectuals Can Learn from Popular Religion (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1994), 61, 74. Mouw offers a poignant illustration of the legitimacy of therapeutic insight, describing neighbors of his in which father and son fought incessantly, shouting "I hate you" "I wish you would die." "Sometimes I would weep when I heard these exchanges. I wished desperately that they could sit down with a therapist____It struck me that I could grasp the underlying dynamics of their conversations in ways that my forebears would not have been able to. Not because I am smarter..." but because "I have learned much from the therapeutic culture" (73).

54 Charles Taylor, The Ethics of Authenticity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 23.

56 Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 372f.

57 Taylor, Ethics of Authenticity, 65ff.

58 Alcoholics Anonymous, Alcoholics Anonymous, 3rd edn (New York: AA World Services, Inc., 1939,1955, 1976), 82.

61 Ibid., 45. Emphasis in the original.

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