1 Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 29.

2 Augustine, Confessions, trans. R.S. Pine-Coffin (London: Penguin Books, 1961), X.6.

3 Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, I.7.

4 Jack Kerouac, On the Road (New York: Viking Press, 1979), 48.

5 Tillich, Dynamics of Faith (New York: Harper & Row, 1957), 4.

7 Havelock Ellis, The New Spirit (1890), 232, quoted in William James, Varieties ofReligious Experience, 56.

8 Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, 10.

9 James, Varieties of Religious Experience, 298f.

10 Tillich, Dynamics ofFaith, 12.

11 Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, I (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 13.

12 Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757), ed. Adam Phillips (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990); Immanuel Kant, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764), trans. John Goldthwait (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960).

13 Philip Hallie, Tales of Good and Evil, Help and Harm (New York: HarperCollins, 1997), 124. Emphasis is his.

14 Kant also posits the experience of the sublime as the spring from which flows our most primordial sense of moral duty. In his Critique ofPractical Reason, he writes: "Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more steadily we reflect on them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me____The former... annihilates, as it were, my importance as an animal creature which must give back to the planet the matter from which it came The latter, on the contrary, infinitely raises my worth..." trans. Lewis White Beck (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), 166.

15 Friedrich Schleiermacher, The Christian Faith (1830), eds. H.R. MacKintosh and J.S. Stewart (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1928, 1986), ยง63.

16 Augustine, Confessions, trans. R.S. Pine-Coffin, XII.14.

17 Tillich, Systematic Theology, I, 216.

19 The Greek root of the word "ontology," onta, means "existing beings."

20 Tillich, Dynamic of Faith, ch. 4.

21 See Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy, trans. Francis Golffing (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1956), 42.

22 Roger Shattuck, Forbidden Knowledge: From Prometheus to Pornography (New York: St Martin's Press, 1996), 319.

23 Paul Tillich, Ultimate Concern: Tillich in Dialogue, ed. D. MacKenzie Brown (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1965), 179.

24 James, The Varieties of Religious Experience, 80f.

25 Tillich, Systematic Theology, I, 110.

26 Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, 6.

27 Paul Tillich, The Protestant Era, 78.

28 While his account of revelation lends itself to flattening out the difference between biblical revelation and any ecstatic experience, Tillich is careful to draw a distinction. He gives the name of original revelation to those outpourings of new awareness that are witnessed to in the Bible, and by extension, to the prophetic experiences that became the founding events of other religions. Once a religion2 has been established, the continuing ecstatic experiences of those who conform their lives to it falls under the category of dependent revelation. The sacred texts, rituals, laws, sacraments, doctrines, institutions, prayers, clerics, saints, and ethical systems that flow from the original revelation are instances of a continuing ecstatic reception. The original revelation remains fresh in the lives of communities as long as it is renewed through ecstatic experiences in the lives of individuals, and this is understood in the history of the church as the work of the divine Spirit, but it is a different order of revelation that is dependent upon the original event. Religion2 has revelatory power, but it is the power of "illumination" in contrast to that of "inspiration," which is characteristic of occasions of original revelation. See Tillich, Systematic Theology, I, 126f.

29 Tillich, Systematic Theology, I, 140.

30 Tillich offers different variations on this list. See his Dynamics of Faith, 41-54; Systematic Theology, I, 239-41; and Theology of Culture, 53-67.

31 Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 127.

33 Beginning with Friedrich Schleiermacher, theologians have used the expression "the picture of Jesus" to describe this magnetic quality of Jesus to accumulate ascriptions over time. For a historical survey of a succession of images that have been attached to Jesus, see Jaroslav Pelikan's Jesus through the Centuries: His Place in the History of Culture (New York: Harper & Row, 1985). On Jesus as CEO, see Bruce Barton's 1925 classic, The Man Nobody Knows, or the more recent book by Laurie Beth Jones, Jesus CEO: Using Ancient Wisdom for Visionary Leadership (New York: Hyperion, 1995).

34 Tillich, Theology of Culture, 58.

35 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John T. McNeill (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), 1.9.8.

36 Tillich, Theology of Culture, 60.

37 Tillich, Ultimate Concern: Tillich in Dialogue, 180f.

38 Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion (New York: New American Library, 1958), 2.

39 Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1959), 138.

40 Mike Featherstone, Undoing Culture: Globalization, Postmodernism and Identity (London: Sage Publications, 1995), 8.

41 Johann Gottried Herder, "Fragment of an Essay on Mythology" (c. 1782-92), in Against Pure Reason, ed. Marcia Bunge (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993), 80f.

42 Tillich, Dynamics of Faith, 50.

44 Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane, 98.

45 Eliade, Myth and Reality (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 5f.

46 Eliade, Patterns, 411.

47 Mircea Eliade, Myths, Dreams, and Mysteries (New York: Harper Torch-books, 1960), 186.

48 Eliade, Patterns, 345.

49 Eliade, Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, 27.

50 This was the mantra of the Unabomber, Ted Kaczynski.

51 For more on this phenomenon, see the account of "religion3" below.

52 Arnold van Gennep, The Rites of Passage [1908] (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), 20ff.

55 See Victor Turner, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1969); and The Forest ofSymbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967).

56 Victor Turner, Blazing the Trail: Way Marks in the Exploration ofSymbols (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1992), 49.

57 Turner, Forest ofSymbols, 95-7.

58 Turner, Blazing the Trail, 50.

59 Turner, Forest, 103-10.

61 Ibid, 127ff.

62 Paul Tillich, "Kairos" (1922), in The Protestant Era, 43.

63 Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, III (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), 248f. Similarly, and under Tillich's influence, Margaret Miles wrote, "Religion without artistic images is qualitatively impoverished; art without religion is in danger of triviality, superficiality, or subservience to commercial or political interests." See her Image as Insight (Boston: Beacon Press, 1985), 152.

64 Tillich, Systematic Theology, I, 15. Similarly, Augustine pointed out that "those who exult in divine assistance... should calm themselves for this reason: they should remember that they have learned at least the alphabet from men." See his On Christian Doctrine, Prologue.4.

65 On this often neglected history, see James Morone, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003); Carol Hymowitz and Michaele Weissman, A History of Women in America (New York: Bantam Books, 1978); Michael J. Perry, The Idea of Human Rights: Four Inquiries (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998); Walter Rauschenbusch, Christianizing the Social Order (Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1912); Lezak Kolakowski, Modernity on Endless Trial (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990); Max Stackhouse, Creeds, Society, and Human Rights: A Study in Three Cultures (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1984); Rodney Stark, One True God: Historical Consequences of Monotheism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001), and For the Glory of God (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003); and Benson Bobrick, Wide as the Waters: The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution It Inspired (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001).

66 On religion and sports in the US, see Robert Higgs, God in the Stadium (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995); Joseph Price, ed., From Season to Season: Sports as American Religion (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2001); Christopher Evans and William Herzog II, eds., The Faith of 50 Million: Baseball, Religion, and American Culture (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002); Michael Novak, The Joy of Sports: End Zones, Bases, Balls, and the Consecration of the American Spirit (New York: Basic Press, 1976); and Charles S. Prebish, Religion and Sport: The Meeting of Sacred and Profane (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993).

67 Two admissions are in order here to cover a multitude of sins in what lies ahead: First, the selection of artifacts from popular culture is not comprehensive. There is probably no escaping the fact that this selection reflects, for the most part, samples of popular culture that fall on the radar screen of my own generational location. Born in 1958, I straddle the line between baby boomers and Generation X. Consequently the materials that catch my attention as worthy of analysis favor these two generations, and, inescapably, a host of other biases (gender, race, social class). Second, while factors like bricolage and the consumers' sometimes oppositional use of popular culture do figure into some of the analyses, I have tended to favor intentions and values that can be located in the "texts" themselves (whether the texts be movies, ads, songs, wall art or TV shows). Where possible, I have investigated statements made by creators of these texts to better understand their intentions. But my primary interest here is not in the creators of the texts nor in their reception, but in the artifacts themselves and the world as they construe it. To do justice to the use consumers make of popular culture would require a more ethnographic approach than has been attempted here. This is certainly worth doing to supplement a consideration of the values built into artifacts, but not if it negates the discernible way of valuing the world that can be found in the artifacts themselves.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment