1 One fascinating aspect of this is that the sides do not follow the old fault line of conservative/liberal. Both camps are themselves divided internally in their estimations of the value of cultural studies, and particularly postmodernist elements within it. Among Evangelicals are found some of the most uncritical readers of postmodernism; among Liberals some of the most dismissive. Much has to do with attitudes toward the Enlightenment-those who believe it marginalized their communities and beliefs tend to have a friendly attitude toward the subaltern sympathies and deconstructionist irreverence that characterize so much of cultural studies. The enemy of your enemy is your friend.
2 A good analysis of this can be found in Sheila Greeve Davaney, "Theology and the Turn to Cultural Analysis," in Converging on Culture: Theologians in Dialogue with Cultural Analysis and Criticism, eds. Delwin Brown, Sheila Greeve Davaney and Kathryn Tanner (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 3-16.
3 See Anthony Pinn, Why Lord?: Suffering and Evil in Black Theology (New York: Continuum, 1995); Varieties of African American Religious Experience (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998); "Rap Music and Its Message," in Religion and Popular Culture in America, eds. Bruce David Forbes and Jeffrey Mahan (Berkeley: University of California Press), 258-75.
4 See James Cone, The Spirituals and the Blues: An Interpretation (New York: Seabury Press, 1972); Michael Eric Dyson, Between God and Gangsta Rap: Bearing Witness to Black Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1996); Jon Michael Spencer, The Rhythms of Black Folk: Race, Religion and Pan-Africanism (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1995).
6 Pinn, "Rap Music and Its Message," 271.
7 Jürgen Moltmann, God for a Secular Society: The Public Relevance of Theology (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999), 5. Emphasis is mine.
8 Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), 578-82.
9 Ibid., 55. See also Carlin A. Barton, The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The Gladiator and the Monster (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), 11-46.
10 Tertullian, "The Shows, or de Spectaculus," trans. S. Thelwall, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. III, eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956).
11 Circuses in the second century had many elements that are still found in circuses today - sword swallowers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, clowns mimicking gladiatorial battles. The theater, too, resembled theater today, with actors performing tragedies and comedies, elaborate scenery, costumes, and special effects. Many of the great Greek dramas that are still performed today were part of their repertoire. Races would include chariot and horse races, as well as human athletes competing in various sports.
12 Tertullian, "The Shows, or de Spectaculus," 79.
16 John Chrysostom, "New Homily No.7," from John Chrysostom, eds. Wendy Mayer and Pauline Allen (London: Routledge, 2000), 122.
21 Tertullian, "On Idolatry," trans. S. Thelwall, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. III, eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956).
23 H.R. Niebuhr, Christ and Culture (New York: Harper & Row, 1951), 55.
24 Augustine, Confessions, trans. R.S. Pine-Coffin (New York: Penguin Books, 1961), III/2.
26 Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, trans. D.W. Robertson, Jr (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958), II/40.
28 Confessions, III/6.
29 City of God, XXII/24.
34 Augustine, Epistle 55, trans. Wilfrid Parsons, in The Fathers of the Church, vol. 12 (New York: Fathers of the Church, 1951), 220.
35 On Christian Doctrine, II/18.
38 Epistle 55,293.
39 On Christian Doctrine, III/10.
42 Augustine, Epistle 91, trans. Wilfrid Parsons, in The Fathers of the Church, vol. 18 (New York: Fathers of the Church, 1951), 45. Augustine cites the same example in Confessions I/16, and in City of God, II/7.
44 Augustine, Confessions, X.34.
45 Ernst Troeltsch, The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches, trans. Olive Wyon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1931).
46 See, for example, Stanley Hauerwas, After Christendom: How the Church Is to Behave if Freedom, Justice and a Christian America Are Bad Ideas (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1991); Hauerwas and William Willimon, Resident Aliens (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1989); and, following in this line, Martin Copenhaver, Anthony Robinson and William Willimon, Good News in Exile: Three Pastors Offer a Hopeful Vision for the Church (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1999).
47 Hauerwas and Willimon, Resident Aliens, 46f.
49 Stanley Hauerwas, Vision and Virtue: Essays in Christian Ethical Reflection (Notre Dame, IN: Fides Publishers, 1974), 241ff.
50 Augustine, City of God, XIX/13.
51 Martin Luther, "That These Words of Christ, 'This Is My Body,' etc., Still Stand Firm against the Fanatics" (1527), in Luther's Works, vol. 37, ed. Robert H. Fischer (Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1961), 59.
52 Paul Tillich, "One Moment of Beauty," in On Art and Architecture, eds. John Dillenberger and Jane Dillenberger (New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 1987), 235. The essay was written in 1955.
53 For good background on this period of Tillich's life and the influences on his thinking at the time, see Wilhelm and Marion Pauck, Paul Tillich: His Life and Thought (New York: Harper & Row, 1976), 40-94; and, Ronald Stone, Paul Tillich's Radical Social Thought (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1980), 32-58.
54 Paul Tillich, "On the Idea of a Theology of Culture," trans. William Baillie Green, in What Is Religion?, ed. James Luther Adams (New York: Harper & Row, 1969).
55 This is a device first suggested by John P. Clayton, in his book, The Concept of Correlation: Paul Tillich and the Possibility of a Mediating Theology (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1980), 88f.
56 Paul Tillich, "Religious Style and Religious Material in the Fine Arts" (1921), trans. Robert Scharlemann, in On Art and Architecture, 54.
57 Tillich, "On the Idea of a Theology of Culture," 169.
59 Paul Tillich, The Religious Situation, trans. H. Richard Niebuhr (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1932), 37.
60 Paul Tillich, "Kairos" (1922), in Writings in the Philosophy of Religion, ed. John P. Clayton (Berlin: De Gruyter-Evangelische Verlagwerk GmbH, 1987), 66.
61 Paul Tillich, "Religion and Secular Culture," in The Protestant Era (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 60.
62 Paul Tillich, "Existentialist Aspects of Modern Art," in On Art and
63 A roster of better-known theologians whose use of culture reflects Tillich's influence includes James Luther Adams, Langdon Gilkey, Bernard Meland, Richard Kroner, Julian Hartt, Harvey Cox, David Tracy, Tom Driver, James Wall, Robert Scharlemann, Nathan Scott, Jr, Peter Hodgson, John MacQuarrie, Sallie McFague, Gibson Winter, Max Stackhouse, William Schweiker, David Klemm, Ronald Stone, and Ralph Wood.
64 A good account of Tillich's connection to the Institute for Social Research may be found in Ronald H. Stone, Paul Tillich's Radical Social Thought (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1980).
65 Tillich, On Art and Architecture, 132, 152, 223.
66 Tillich, Protestant Era, 60.
67 Paul Tillich, "The Political Meaning of Utopia" (1951), in Political Expectation, ed. James Luther Adams (New York: Harper & Row, 1971), 170.
68 Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, I (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 39f.
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