1 The Centre was abruptly decommissioned in the summer of 2002 by the University to the shock and consternation of many. The official reason given was a low rating on the Research Assessment Exercise by which the University evaluates the rigor and reputation of research done in its academic departments. Given the international reputation of the Centre, the results of this RAE are puzzling.

2 See Stuart Hall and Paddy Whannel, The Popular Arts (London: Hutchinson, 1964); Paul Willis, Profane Culture (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978); Angela McRobbie, Feminism and Youth Culture (London: Unwin Hyman, 1991); Dick Hebdige, Subculture: The Meaning of Style

(London: Methuen & Co., 1979); and John Hartley, Uses of Television (London: Routledge, 1999).

3 Richard Hoggart, The Uses of Literacy (London: Penguin Books, 1957), 340.

5 Michael Berube, Public Access: Literary Theory and American Cultural Politics (New York: Verso, 1994), 141.

6 Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1971), 161.

7 John Storey, An Introduction to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, 2nd edn (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998), 126.

8 Hebdige, Subculture, 92f.

9 Hebdige, Subculture, 94.

10 Thomas Frank, The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Consumerism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 227.

11 Thomas Frank, One Market under God: Extreme Capitalism, Market Populism, and the End of Economic Democracy (New York: Doubleday, 2000), 259f.

12 Willis, Profane Culture, 1.

13 Note also Angela McRobbie's study of the fashions and leisure activities of teenage girls in her Feminism and Youth Culture, cited above.

14 Hebdige, Subculture, 18.

15 Hebdige, Hiding in the Light, 74.

16 Hebdige, Subculture, 18.

17 Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 31.

19 See <>. See also the book, Culture Jam by Kalle Lasn, one of the founders of Adbusters (New York: HarperCollins, 2000). And Naomi Klein's No Logo (New York: Picador, 2002).

20 Umberto Eco, Theory ofSemiotics (Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press, 1979), 150.

21 Jean Baudrillard, "The Evil Demon of Images and the Precession of Simulacra," in Postmodernism: A Reader, ed. Thomas Docherty (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1993), 194ff. See also, Baudrillard, Simulations (New York: Semiotext(e), 1983), 1-36.

22 Jane Addams, "The House of Dreams," in The Spirit of Youth and City Streets (New York: MacMillan, 1909), 75f, 82f. <http://www.boondocksnet. com/editions/youth/youth4.html>.

23 Baudrillard shares this view of America as the leading edge of hyperreality: "Yes, California (and America with it) is the mirror of our decadence... It is hyperreal in its vitality, it has all the energy of the simulacrum. 'It is the world centre of the inauthentic.' Certainly it is: that is what gives it its originality and power. The irresistible rise of the simulacrum is something you can simply feel here without the slightest effort." Baudrillard, America

(London: Verso, 1988), 104. This book, too, is a tour of America to verify the hypothesis of its full-force plunge into hyperreality.

24 Umberto Eco, Travels in Hyperreality, trans. William Weaver (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1986), 19.

27 Anne Raver, "Fooling with Nature," New York Times (July 11,1993), travel section, p. 5.

28 Eco, Travels in Hyperreality, 8.

29 Jennifer Daryl Slack and Laurie Anne Whitt, "Ethics and Cultural Studies," in Cultural Studies, eds. Lawrence Grossberg et al. (New York: Routledge, 1992), 571-592.

30 Frank, One Market under God, 294.

31 Quoted in Adam Kuper, Culture: The Anthropologists' Account (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 230.

32 Dick Hebdige, "Postmodernism and 'The Other Side'," The Journal of Communication Inquiry, vol. 10/2 (1987), 85.

33 Dick Hebdige, "The Bottom Line on Planet One: Squaring up to The Face," Ten-8, vol. 19 (1987), 44.

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