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individual and society may be summed up in the following astronomical metaphor: 'The harmony of the spheres is the unity of each planet relating to itself and to the whole' (63).

The structure of the relation between the individual and society in an age of levelling, however, will be different from that of previous ages, in which the leaders of society were recognizable individuals who exercised authority in their various positions of rank, thereby supporting and being supported by the whole. Now, like 'plainclothes policemen' or 'secret agents', they will be unrecognizable individuals who lead without authority, giving support to the universal in a negative and indirect manner by repulsion, that is, by exposing the evil of levelling in society and defeating it through suffering rather than by an external victory (107-9). As Kierkegaard envisions them, 'not one of the unrecognizable ones will dare give direct help, speak plainly, teach openly, assume decisive leadership of the crowd'; rather, they must learn to love others infinitely by constraining themselves rather than constraining and domineering over others (108-9). In a journal entry of the following year Kierkegaard observes:

There never has been and there cannot be a Christian reformation which turns against authority as if all would then be well; that would be much too secular a movement. No, the essentially Christian reformation means to turn against the mass, for the essentially Christian reformation means that each person must be reformed, and only then is the most ungodly of all unchristian categories overthrown: the crowd, the public. (JP iii. 2929)

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