List of Figures

3.1 Some metaphysical options concerning the existence of abstract objects. 107

3.2 Analogy of the universe as a city laid out in a grid. 126

3.3 Model classes based on exceptions to the Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems. 132

3.4 A Gott-Li universe time machine. 133

3.5 In chaotic inflation, an initial generic manifold undergoes regional inflation. 140

3.6 The String Landscape inflationary model. 141

3.7 Post-2003 cosmological model building based on finding exceptions to the Borde-Vilenkin-Guth Theorem. 143

3.8 Penrose depiction of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. 146

3.9 The de Sitter universe. 146

3.10 Evolution of an Emergent universe from a metastable loop quantum gravity state. 150

3.11 Baum-Frampton phantom bounce model. 152

3.12 Families of quantum gravity cosmologies. 159

3.13 String cosmology models and proponents. 160

3.14 Construction of the pre-Big Bang inflation (PBBI) model is given at the "asymptotic past triviality" or APT point. 162

3.15 Rate of universe expansion versus time in the pre-Big Bang inflation model. 163

3.16 Pre-Big Bang inflation as a string quantum transition. 164

3.17 Pictorial description of the ekpyrotic cycle. 167

3.18 Candidate loop quantum gravity (LQG) cosmologies. 169

3.19 Quantum models with an explicit beginning to the finite past. 175

3.20 Creation ex nihilo of a universe. 176

3.21 Transition to "normal" time in a Hartle-Hawking approach. 177

3.22 Quantum tunneling of the universe to an inflationary condition. 184

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