Special attention must be paid to the Supplementum of Migne's Latin Patrology (PLSup), published by A. Hamman, from 1958 to 1970 in five volumes. The updating of PL up to the early 1970s presents all patristic and medieval texts discovered and published since Migne's PL was printed. These new texts constitute many additions to Migne which would normally find their place in a new edition of the celebrated Patrologia. Even for small fragments of texts already in PL, if ever produced in a new critical edition, A. Hamman consistently indicates in full detail how the fragments have been edited as well as the manuscripts on which the newly reproduced texts are based, with an acknowledgment of their first publishers. In other words, not only is PL thereby updated, but at the same time an updated survey is secured for the critical work on Latin patristic sources completed in the first half of the twentieth century. Such an initiative, beneficial as it is for generations of students to come, witnesses to a remarkable collective awareness among patristic experts in the immediate aftermath of World War II, that a new era was dawning for patristics.
The list of titles in PLSup, Textus singulis scriptoribus attributi, enumer ated in vol. V, Indices (1974), the work of L. Bailly and J.-P. Bouhot, covers over sixty pages PL format. From Ambrose of Milan to Pope Zosimus, each author's name is followed by the list of his writings reprinted in PLSup: eight such titles for Ambrose, for Augustine 148 (essentially the collections of his sermons published by Caillau-Saint-Yves, Lambot, Mai, Morin, Willmart and others), with even a greater number for pseudo-Augustine. Caesarius of Arles, almost entirely authenticated in the sources since the early twentieth century, has almost as many titles as Augustine. Other heavy-weights of the twentieth-century critical editions are Chrysostomus Latinus, Epiphanius Latinus, Eusebius Gallicanus, Gregorius Magnus, Pelagius I. Jerome accounts for 190 titles. It is fascinating to examine the editorial work leading to such an accumulation of up-dated primary sources, especially when one considers the achievements of the second half of the century, such as the discovery of new sermons and letters of Augustine which surprisingly enough had escaped the attention of all former editors.
vii. Patrología Orientalis (PO)
As a project conceived in 1897 at a "Congrès des Orientalistes" in Paris, the Patrologia Orientalis was founded by R. Graffin and, for a long period of time, directed by him and F. Nau. The first volume of the series appeared in 1907, its volume 25 in 1943, the series maintaining its publications and its standards throughout World War II under R. Graffin's firm direction. Still under his supervision, volume 26 came out in 1945. After R. Graffin's death, years past before the series took a new start with his nephew, F. Graffin, a Jesuit expert in Syriac, as director. From 1957 until the late 1990s. twenty imposing volumes enriched this prestigious collection.
The following titles of PO since 1945 are of a special interest for students of patristic exegesis. Note that vol. 26 is dated from 1945, but its five fascicles are actually to be dated as follows: 1945 (fasc. 1), 1946 (fasc. 2). 1948 (fasc. 3), 1950 (fasc. 4), 1949 (fasc. 5). The same disposition is kept in the subsequent volumes.
In vol. 27 (1954-1957) among other works is that of M. Brière, L. Mariés, B.-C. Mercier, eds., Hippolyte de Rome, Sur les Bénédictions d'Isaac, de Jacob et de Moïse (1954).
The Ethiopian Synaxarion, or Book of the Saints, started publication in PO, vol. 1 (I. Guidi, ed., 1907). It was continued in vol. 7 (I. Guidi, ed., 1911), vol. 9 (I. Guidi and S. Grébaut, eds., 1913) and vol. 15 (S. Grébaut, ed., 1927). Its critical edition and translation received a new start still with S. Grébaut as editor in 1945, and was freshly energized by G. Colin from vol. 43 (1986) to vol. 46 (1994).
The critical edition and French translation in PO of Severus of Antioch's one hundred twenty-five Cathedral Homilies required even more enduring efforts if not a longer period of time. Started in vol. 4 (1908) with R. Duval as editor, their publication continued in vol. 8 (1912) and 12 (1919) with M. Brière, Vol. 16 (1922), with M.-A. Kugener and E. Triffaux as editors, vol. 20 (1929) with M. Brière, ed., and vol. 22 (1930), again with I. Guidi, ed. After World War II the editing of Severus's Homilies started again in vol. 26 (1948), still with M. Brière as editor. In vol. 29 (1961) Brière's work was published posthumously; it continued to serve as the basis for F. Graffin's editing in vol. 35 (1969), for F. Graffin and C. J. A. Lash's collaborative editing in vol. 36 (1972), and again for F. Graffin's tireless dedication in vol. 36 (1974), 37 (1975) and 38 (1976), the latter publication benefiting also from the collaboration of C. J. A. Lash and J.-M. Sauget. During almost seventy years from 1908 to 1976, the perseverance of eight distinguished specialists of Syriac language finally made available for the first time in a modern language one of the most amazing monuments of patristic preaching whose original Greek text is lost. This masterpiece still waits for a proper analysis with regard to its relevance for patristic exegesis.
The Old Georgian Version of biblical books called for a first publication in vol. 26 (1950), The Old Georgian Version of the Gospel of John ed., R. P. Blake and M. Brière; then for a second in vol. 27 (1955), La version géorgienne ancienne de l'Evangile de Luc. M. Brière ed., and a third one, vol. 29, The Old Georgian Version of the Prophets, R. P. Blake ed.; Petits Prophètes, M. Brière (1961). The Old Georgian Version of the Gospel of Matthew had been edited by R. P. Blake in vol. 24 as early as 1933.
Another example of a multi-authored editorship spread over a long period of time is due to Le Candélabre du Sanctuaire de Grégoire Abou Ifaradj dit Barhebraeus: Quatrième Base: l'Incarnation, J. Khoury, ed., vol. 31 (1964); Neuvième Base: Libre Arbitre, P.-H. Poirier, ed., vol. 43 (1985); Dizième Base: Résurrection E. Zigmund Cerbu, ed., vol. 35 (1969); Onzième Base: Jugement dernier N. Séd, ed., vol. 41 (1983); and finally Douzième Base: Paradis, also N. Séd, ed., vol. 40 (1981).
La chaîne arménienne sur les Épîtres Catholiques, by C. Renoux, covers at present vol. 43, fasc. 193 (1985), "I. La chaîne sur l'Epître de Jacques"; vol. 44, fasc. 198 (1987), "II. La chaîne sur les Epîtres de Pierre"; vol. 46, fasc. 205-6 (1994), "III. La chaîne sur la première Epître de Jean."
An important set of exegetical homilies and other writings highlight-
ing the use of Scripture in Syriac and Armenian traditions complete the Orientalistic contribution of PO:
vol. 27, fasc. 1-2: Hippolyte de Rome. Sur les Bénédictions d'Isaac, de Jacob et de Moïse (1954).
30, fasc. 1: Hymnes de Saint Éphrem conservées en version arménienne, L. Mariés and C. Mercier, eds., (1961). 32, fasc. 1-2 (1966), fasc. 3-4 (1969): Soma Deggua. Antiphonaire du Carême. Texte éthiopien avec variantes, B. Velat, ed.
34, fasc. 3-4: Homélies de Narsaïsur la Création, P. Gignoux ,ed., (1968).
35, n. 163: Le Codex Arménien Jerusalem 121, I. Introduction aux origines de la liturgie hiérosolymitaine. Lumières nouvelles, (1969), C. Renoux, ed.
36, n. 168: II. Edition comparée du texte et de deux autres manuscrits (1971), C. Renoux, ed.
38, fasc. 1, n. 174: Homélies contre les Juifs par Jacques de Saroug M. Albert, ed., (1976); fasc. 4, n. 177: Trois homélies syriaques anonymes et inédites sur l'Épiphanie, A. Desreumaux, ed., (1977). 40, fasc. 1, n. 182: Narsais Metrical Homilies on the Nativity, Epiphany, Passion, Resurrection and Ascension. F. G. McLeod (1979), vol. 41, facs. 2, n. 187: Barsabée de Jérusalem sur le Christ et les Églises M. van Esbroeck, ed., (1982); fasc. 4, n. 189: Homélies anonymes du 6ème siècle: Dissertation sur le Grand Prêtre, Homélies sur la pécheresse I, II, III, F. Graffin, ed.,
42, fasc. 1, n. 190: Hésychius de Jérusalem, Homélies sur Job, C. Renoux, ed.; C. Mercier and C. Renoux, transl. (1983).
43, fasc. 4, n. 196: Jacques de Saroug, Six homélies festales en prose, F. Rilliet (1986).
viii. Sources Chrétiennes (SC)
The performance of Sources Chrétiennes is spectacular, even unique, as a series entirely dedicated to the Church Fathers. Projected by the Jesuit V. Fontoynont at Lyon in the years 1932-1937, the collection effectively started in 1942 and counted 437 volumes at the end of the 1990s. Its initial promoters, H. de Lubac, J. Daniélou and C. Mondésert, all three Jesuits, intended fostering a return to ancient "sources" of Christian spirituality which would counterbalance the abstract aridity of the scholastic system prevalent in the seminaries and theological circles of Catholicism at that time. Targeting a broad public of educated lay-people as well as clerics, and thanks to a careful manage-
ment and a well focused open-mindedness in their theological motivation (the "nouvelle théologie" of Fourvière was a contemporary phenomenon), the founders of Sources Chrétiennes attracted numerous collaborators. After the first few volumes of the series were published without critical editions (later on they all had such editions) one publication after another showed constant scientific improvement. At the start, Greek patristic sources were privileged; Henri de Lubac established Origen of Alexandria as a front-runner among the many ancient authorities whose works were launched into the modern world in SC. The edition of Latin authors started only with vol. 19. A set of "non-Christian texts" (in fact, a highly problematic title! Later it became the "Série annexe de textes parachrétiens," see vol. 44) started with vol. 23, Extraits de Théodote, and vol. 24, Ptolémée, Lettre à Flora. The tentative inclusion of sources from the non-Greek speaking traditions in the Orient, Syriac and Armenian, in particular, with the Homilies of Philoxenos of Mabboug (vol. 44), translated and commented on by E. Lemoine (1956), met with an immediate success. This initiative was followed by the publication of other sources of those traditions communicating a wealth of spiritual commentaries on the Bible: The Book of Prayers by Gregory of Narek (transl. from Armenian, I. Kéchichian; vol. 78, 1961); the Commentary on the Diatessaron by Ephrem (transl. from Syriac and Armenian, L. Leloir; vol. 121, 1966); the Hymns on Paradise also by Ephrem (transl. R. Lavenant, vol. 137, 1968); the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (transl. with commentaries, P. Bogaert, vol. 144, 1969, 2 vols.); the poetic work on Jesus the Only Son of the Father by Nerses Snorhali, who died in 1173 (transl. from Armenian, I. Kéchichian, vol. 203, 1973; the Dialogues and Treatises of John of Apamea, a spiritual leader of the fifth century in northern Syria (transl. R. Lavenant, vol. 311, 1984); the Expositions by the fourth century Aphraat the Wise from Persia (transl. from Syriac, M. J. Pierre, vols. 349 and 359, 1988-89). A more eccentric edition was Pseudo-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, originally in Hebrew, the work of a Jewish scholar living in Jerusalem (?) apparently before 70 c.E. (transl. D. J. Harrington, vols. 229-230, 1976).
Starting with Hilary of Poitiers' Tractatus Mysteriorum (vol. 19, 1947) and Leo I's Sermons (vol. 22, 1947), ancient Latin sources flourished in SC to a total of one hundred and twenty-five volumes in 1998. A new edition of Tertullian's works is near completion with fifteen volumes available, whereas Augustine, massively published elsewhere, is only present in SC with his Commentary on the First Letter of John, (vol. 75, 3rd. ed., 1984), and his Easter Sermons (vol. 116, 1966). Among the titles accepted for publication in the near future figures Tyconius's Book of Rules. In short, Ambrose of Milan, Caesarius of Arles, Cyprian of Carthage, Gregory the Great, Hilary of
Poitiers, John Cassian, Jerome, Lactantius, Leo the Great, Marius Victorinus, Rufinus of Aquileia, and Tertullian, among others, form in SC a chorus of exclusively Latin voices, crossing five centuries of ancient Christianity, and giving a diversified account of ancient biblical exegesis in the West.
SC offers an impressive amount of primary texts inherited from Greek-speaking churches. Authors from the first (Clement of Rome) to the thirteenth (Nicholas Cabasilas) century c.E. offer a broad access to the main genres of biblical exegesis notwithstanding anonymous productions such as the Letter to Diognetus, the "Chaîne palestinienne sur le Psaume 118" (vols. 189-190, 1972), the Apophtegmata Patrum (vol. 387, 1993), and others. Some writings were totally unknown in their original texts before reaching the potentially world-wide readership of SC. Such were the two thousand Letters of Isidore of Pelusium (vol. 422, 1997; another volume to come); the Commentary on the Canticle by the monk Nilus of Ancyra (vol. 403, 1994; another volume announced) the Correspondence of Barsanuphius and John of Gaza (vols. 426-427, 1997-98), as many first critical editions of documents starting to vibrate with new life thanks to competent editors and commentators. The Greek Christian sources form an ocean of symbolic language in Late Antiquity. To chart that ocean and to record their findings in modern critical editions, more than one series of SC would be required. Hence there in no surprise that many exegetical works are still missing even in the unparalleled achievement of SC, in which currently over a hundred titles signal a properly exegetical content, and most others allow the modern reader to become familiar in one way or another with exegetical practices in a variety of literary genres.
Through the agency of SC a complete edition with texts, French translations and commentaries, in thirty-six volumes, of Philo of Alexandria has been produced. A series "Medieval Continuation" was added to SC, inaugurated in 1958 with Aelred of Rievaulx, When Jesus Was Twelve Years Old (vol. 60), and continued with William of Saint-Thierry's Treatise on the Contemplation of God, (vol. 61, 1959), Richard of Saint Victor's De Trinitate (vol. 63, 1959), and many others in the next four decades (among the forthcoming volumes figure the second volume of Bernard of Clairvaux's Sermons on the Canticle and the first volume of his Letters). Thus the biblical mind of the Fathers is proven to be creatively at work in medieval scholarship at least in its monastic establishment.
ix. Sources of Patristic Exegesis in other Collections (by linguistic areas)
Vigiliae Christianae, Supplements. Texts and Studies of Early Christian Life and
Language, J. H. Waszink and J. C. M. van Winden eds., from 1987: vol. 1. J. H. Waszink and J. C. M. van Winden eds., Tertullianus, De idolola-tria, 1987.
6. H. Marti, transl., Rufinus of Aquileia, De ieiunio I-II, 1989.
7. G. A. M. Rowhorst, transl., Les Hymnes pascales d'Ephrem de Nisibe, II.
16. F. X. Risch, ed., Pseudo-Basilius, Adversus Eunomium IV-V, 1992.
20. M. Vinzent, transl., Asterius von Kappadokian, 1993.
21. R. Hennings, Der Briefwechsel zwischen Augustinus und Hieronymus und der Streit um den Kanon des AT und die Auslegung von Gal 2,11-14, 1994.
34. M. Marcovich, ed., Clementis Alexandrini Protrepticus, 1995. 39. M. Vinzent, ed. and transl., Markell von Ankyra, die Fragmente.Der Brief an Iulius von Rome, 1997.
Ante-Nicene Fathers and Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers
This double series (ANF, 10 vols.; NPNF1, 14 vols.; NPNF2, 14 vols.), originally published in Great Britain during the second half of the nineteenth century as an imposing piece of Anglo-Catholic apologetics, was reprinted in the United States in 1885 and 1886. The latest reprint in Massachusetts dates from 1995.
Texts and Studies (TS)
Initially created by J. A. Robinson in Cambridge in 1891, but closed in 1952, the series started again in 1954 under the direction of C. H. Dodd. It has given five additional contributions to the study of patristic exegesis, closely linked with critical editions:
M. Black, ed., A Christian Palestinian Syriac Horologion, 1954.
I. A. Moir, Codex Climaci Rescriptus Graecus (Ms. Gregory 1561, L), 1956.
D. W. Gooding, The Account of the Tabernacle. Translation and Textual
Problems of the Greek Exodus, 1959. Q. W. Muncey, The New Testament Text of St. Ambrose 1959. F. Lo Bue, The Turin Fragments of Tyconius'Commentary on Revelation, 1963.
Ancient Christian Writers (ACW)
Created in Washington, D.C., in 1946 by J. Quasten, W. J. Burghardt, and J. C. Plumpe, at the Catholic University of America, one hundred twenty volumes of patristic sources have been published in English translations, among them exegetical works by Augustine, Gregory of Nyssa and John Chrysostom. The original orientation of the series was towards ancient Christian apologetics.
The Fathers of the Church (FaCh)
Published in New York, N.Y., under the editorship of L. Schopp from 1947 on, the series includes many exegetical works of patristic authors:
Ambrose of Milan, On Creation, On Paradise, On Cain and Abel, On Genesis, with other exegetical works. Augustine of Hippo, On Genesis, On the Gospel of John. Basil of Caesarea, Exegetical Homilies. Jerome, Homilies on the Psalms. John Chrysostom, Homilies on John.
Among the volumes published in the 1990s one notes: Vol. 91. St. Ephrem the Syrian, Selected Prose Works: Commentary on Genesis, Commentary on Exodus, Homily on Our Lord, Letter to Pustius. Transl. by E. G. Mathews, Jr., and J. P. Amar. Ed. by K. McVey. Washington, DC 1994 (with general introduction and bibliography). Vol. 92. St. Augustine, Tractates on the Gospel of John 112-124. Tractates on the First Epistle of John. Transl. by J. W. Rettig, 1995. Vol. 94, Origen, Homilies on Luke. Fragments on Luke. Transl. by J. T. Lienhard,
1996 (Introduction) . Vol. 97, Origen, Homilies on Jeremiah. Homily on 1 Kings 28. Transl. by J. C. Smith (1998).
Oxford Early Christian Texts (OECT), H. Chadwick, ed.
Created by Henry Chadwick, the series provided the following publications:
M. Bevenot, Cyprian, De Lapsis and De Ecclesiae Catholicae Unitate, 1971.
E. Evans, ed., Tertullian, Adversus Marcionem, 1972.
W. R. Schoedel, Athenagoras. Legatio and De resurrectione, 1972.
R. W. Thomson, Athanasius, Contra Gentes and De Incarnatione. 1971.
Oxford Early Christian Studies (OECS)
Also initiated by H. Chadwick in 1971 and co-edited with R. Williams and A. Louth, the series provides the following titles for the study of early Christian exegesis:
R. Hillier, Arator, On the Acts of the Apostles. A Baptismal Commentary, 1993. T. De Bruyn, Pelagius' Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, 1993. C. T. R. Hayward, transl., Jerome's Hebrew Questions on Genesis, 1995. R. E. Heine, transl., Gregory of Nyssas Treatise on the Inscriptions of the Psalms,
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