Sanskrit: knowledge, see Latin videre = to see, German wissen = to know. It refers to the oldest Indian writings which partly go back to the immigrant Aryans, and have been canonically gathered in the first millennium B.C. The earliest part called Rigveda is the oldest poetical work of the family of Indo-Germanic languages, and is the oldest source for Indian pantheon and mythology. The four collections of Vedas have been frequently commented and interpreted. The Upanishads (literally: to sit down near someone, to be near to a master as disciple), also called Vedanta = end of Veda, had a very strong bearing on Indian history, because the religious conduct changed from predominantly cultic activities to introductions into meditative ways to one's interior and inner self (yoga). The Upanishads contain also the foundations for the philosophical speculations on the One or Not-Two (Sanskrit advaita) by reflecting on -> atman and Brahman which determines Hindu life to a high degree even today..

Yin and Yang

Both Chinese concepts permeate Chinese cultural and religious history. Originally yin and yang describe the shady (yin) and the sunny (yang) side of a mountain. In this sense they arrange and organize everything between earth and heaven: yin represents the moon, the perfect, the static and inclusive, it is square and tranquil, dark and cold, female and bearing, whereas yang stands for the sun, the start, for causing and dynamic, it is round and movable, bright and hot, male and generating. Both complementary concepts are used in thought and in life practice, in philosophy, religion and medicine.

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