The Second Vatican Council, heeding the voice of social concern sounded in the encyclical letters of Pope Leo XIII, called on
Orthodox monasteries built on the slopes of Mount Athos. One distinctive feature in Orthodoxy has been the revival of monasticism. In the 1960s places such as Mount Athos, the peninsula in the north of Greece that is entirely run by monks, was in danger of having to close because so few monks attended the 20 monasteries. Today there is a waiting list for people to join; a similar situation exists in countries such as Russia.
Catholics to become engaged in the modern world and its social problems. Since the social situations in many South and Central American countries was such that 90 percent of the people were counted among the poor, in 1968 the Catholic bishops of South America called on all Catholics to become involved in social issues. They also declared that the church should give special consideration, "a preferential option," to the poor.
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