In the ancient historical context the term orthodox described the teachings of all the churches that held to agreed teachings concerning the doctrine of the Trinity and the identity of Jesus Christ as one person who is both God and man. The teachings of both Rome and the churches of the East that were not deemed heretical were thus called orthodox. At first, then, it was a term applied to Western and Eastern churches that agreed with the teachings of the early ecumenical, or general, councils of the church. Only later did the term orthodox come to be attached to the churches that remained independent and not affiliated with Rome.
The word catholic comes from the Greek word meaning "universal." "Go, teach all nations" was the command that Jesus Christ gave to his apostles. The word orthodox comes from the Greek orthos, meaning "right" or "correct," and doxa, meaning "belief" or "teaching."
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