Even though much art during the Renais- center. Among the works of art he commis-

sance—the 15th- and 16th-centuries sioned was the painting of the ceiling of the revival of Greek and Roman artistic forms— Sistine Chapel in the Vatican by Michelangelo began tobesponsoredbynon-churchpatrons, (1475-1564). Other famous artists of the time and artists were increasingly creating paint- included Raphael (1483-1520), renowned for ings and sculptures for private enjoyment, The Marriage of the Virgin and The Transfigura-

some of the greatest works of religious art tion, and Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), best were created during this period. Pope Julius known for The Last Supper. II (1503-13) made Rome an important artistic

The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, painted by Michelangelo.

tecture, however, took on fresh, creative forms. The more definitively Christian form of architecture is found later in the Middle Ages with the development of Gothic cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame in France or Cologne Cathedral in Germany, with arches and towers that seem to soar to heaven. These cathedrals were intended to inspire a mood of reverence among worshippers, lifting their hearts to the heavens above. The invention of supports for the soaring walls of the cathedral freed them for windows. Magnificent stained-glass windows became the principal form of internal decoration in these cathedrals. As they knelt before richly carved altars, surrounded by beautiful images, bathed in colored light that had filtered through the stained-glass windows, medieval worshippers must have felt both awed and uplifted. During the 15th and 16th centuries there was a revival of art using Greek and Roman artistic forms, which became known as the Renaissance period. It was during this time that many great works of religious art were commissioned by nonre-ligious as well as religious patrons.

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