The Orthodox Church also refused to accept the Catholic change made to the Nicene/Constantinople Creed concerning the rela-
tionship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son. For the Eastern churches the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone. The Catholic Church declares that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, Jesus. The disagreements became so intense that they led to the mutual excommunication of the patriarch of Constantinople, the head of the Orthodox Church, and the papal legate representing the power and authority of the pope as head of the Western Church. The lengthy process of estrangement continued until it culminated in a complete split upon the sack of Orthodox Constantinople by the Catholic Crusaders in 1204.
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