Orthodox Christianity Third Edition

Stephen F. Brown and Khaled Anatolios Series Editors: Joanne O'Brien and Martin Palmer


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Catholicism & Orthodox Christianity, Third Edition

Copyright © 2009, 2006, 2002 by Infobase Publishing

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact:

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Brown, Stephen F.

Catholicism & Orthodox Christianity / by Stephen F. Brown and Khaled Anatolios. — 3rd ed.

p. cm. — (World religions) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-60413-106-2 (alk. paper)

1. Orthodox Eastern Church—Relations—Catholic Church—History. 2. Catholic Church—Relations—Orthodox Eastern Church—History. I. Anatolios, Khaled, 1962- II. Title. III. Title: Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity. IV. Series.

BX324.3.B76 2009 280'.209—dc22


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Preface 6

Introduction: The Modern Catholic and Orthodox Worlds 8

The Origins of the Catholic and

Orthodox Churches 26

The History of the Catholic and

Orthodox Churches 40

Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity:

Basic Beliefs and Practices 74

The Influence of the Catholic and

Orthodox Churches 96

Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity Facing New Challenges 120

Fact File and Bibliography 138

Further Reading and Web Sites 139

Glossary 140

Index 142

About the Authors and Series Editors 144

Picture Credits 144


Almost from the start of civilization, more than 10,000 years ago, religion has shaped human history. Today more than half the world's population practice a major religion or indigenous spiritual tradition. In many 21st-century societies, including the United States, religion still shapes people's lives and plays a key role in politics and culture. And in societies throughout the world increasing ethnic and cultural diversity has led to a variety of religions being practiced side by side. This makes it vital that we understand as much as we can about the world's religions.

The World Religions series, of which this book is a part, sets out to achieve this aim. It is written and designed to appeal to both students and general readers. The books offer clear, accessible overviews of the major religious traditions and institutions of our time. Each volume in the series describes where a particular religion is practiced, its origins and history, its central beliefs and important rituals, and its contributions to world civilization. Carefully chosen photographs complement the text, and sidebars, a map, fact file, glossary, bibliography, and index are included to help readers gain a more complete understanding of the subject at hand.

These books will help clarify what religion is all about and reveal both the similarities and differences in the great spiritual traditions practiced around the world today.

Catholic as % of Total Population

Latin America 88%

Europe 40%

Oceania 27.5%

North America 23%

Africa 16%

Asia 3%

Orthodox as % of Total Population

Europe Africa Oceania North America Asia

Latin America

Catholic as % of Total Population

Latin America 88%

Europe 40%

Oceania 27.5%

North America 23%

Africa 16%

Asia 3%

Orthodox as % of Total Population

Europe Africa Oceania North America Asia

Latin America

chapter 1

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