Other religious movements gained prominence, especially in the 12th and 13th centuries. As cities began to sprout up throughout Europe a new kind of ministry was needed besides the one carried on in the monasteries, which were usually separated from urban life. Two of the most influential movements were begun by Saint Francis of Assisi (11811226) and by Saint Dominic (1170-1221). They founded two religious orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, dedicated to poverty and preaching. The Franciscans and Dominicans also founded female communities: the Poor Claires, followers of Claire of Assisi, and the Dominican Sisters. They also established lay associates, called Third Order Franciscans or Third Order Dominicans.
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