Recent Developments

Following Bolshevik practice in Russia, the new state authorities of Communist Yugoslavia, after the Second World War, separated the Church from the state and this separation also applied to education. Religious education was taken out of primary and secondary schools and most of the real estate owned by the Church was confiscated. The Theological Faculty was expelled from the University of Belgrade. The schism in parts of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the USA and Macedonia is ongoing, and there are similar problems in Montenegro (the Montenegrin Orthodox Church was officially registered in the year 2000). The wars of the 1990s on the territory of the former Yugoslav state, in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in Kosovo, destroyed many churches and left empty many monasteries, parishes and archbishoprics.

The present-day Serbian Orthodox Church has over 3.500 parishes, 204 monasteries, 1,900 parish priests, some 230 monks and 1,000 nuns. There are six seminaries and two theological faculties: in Belgrade and Libertyville (USA). There is a Theological Institute in Belgrade and Spiritual Academy in Srbinje in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Today seminaries provide education for over 1,000 students and there are over 1,000 students enrolled in theological faculties and spiritual academies. In 1993 the Church established its Academy for Art and Conservation in Belgrade with several departments: iconography, fresco painting, and conservation.

The official publication of the Serbian Orthodox Church is the monthly Glasnik (The Messenger). There is also Pravoslavlje (Orthodoxy), Misionar (Missionary), and Svetosavsko Zvonce (Saint Sava Bell) for children. The Theological Faculty publishes its own periodical as does the Holy Synod and some dioceses. There are also a few religious radio stations.

Further reading

Alexander, S. (19 79) Church and State in Yugoslavia since 1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barford, P. M. (2002) The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. London:

British Museum Press. Cirkovic, S. (2005) The Serbs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clark, V. (2000) Why Angels Fall: A Portrait of Orthodox Europe from Byzantium to Kosovo. London: Macmillan.

Fine, J. V. A. (1987) The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Gogich, D. (1994) The Serbian Patericon. Forestville, Calif.: St Paisios. Hupchick, D. P. (2002) The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. London: Palgrave. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, Special Issue on Pluralism, Proselytism, and Nationalism in Eastern Europe (1999, winter-spring), vol. 36(1-2).

Mojzes, P. (1994) Yugoslavian Inferno: Ethno-Religious Warfare in the Balkans. New York: Continuum.

-(ed.) Religion and the War in Bosnia. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press.

Obolensky, D. (19 74) The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. London: Sphere Books.

Parry, K. (2001) Crisis in the Balkans: the Byzantine monuments of Kosovo. Eastern Churches Journal 8(3): 83-90.

Pavlowitch, K. S. (1988) The Improbable Survivor: Yugoslavia and its Problems 1918-1988. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

-(2002) Serbia: The History behind the Name. London: C. Hurst.

PeiC, S. (1994) Medieval Serbian Culture. London: Alpine Fine Arts.

Petrovich, M. B. (19 76) A History of Modern Serbia, 1804-1918, 2 vols. New York and London:

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. RadiC, R. (2000) The Church and the 'Serbian question'. In N. Popov (ed.) The Road to War in

Serbia. Trauma and Catharsis. Budapest: EU Press. Ramet, R. (ed.) (1988) Eastern Christianity and Politics in the Twentieth Century. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Runciman, S. (1968) The Great Church in Captivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

-(1971) The Orthodox Churches and the Secular State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Soulis, G. C. (1984) The Serbs and Byzantium during the Reign of Tsar Stephen Dusan (1331-1355)

and his Successors. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks. Subotic, G. (1998) Art of Kosovo: The Sacred Land. New York: Monacelli Press. Tachiaos, A.-E. N. (2001) Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs. Crestwood, NY: St Vladimir's Seminary Press.

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