60 and 61 juxtapose 'memory of God' with sinful thoughts and unlike chapter 2 make no mention of intellectual pursuits and learning as a separate category. However, the difference is only apparent since in chapter 2 the two categories -intellectual pursuits and sinful thoughts - are assimilated by being linked back to the same agent. This makes perfect sense in the hesychastic framework where all thoughts are bad in so far as they distract from the Jesus Prayer. It is evident that intellectual pursuits (Aóyoi) have no place in such a framework and that they are only introduced because they have had an important role in the model of Gregory's opponents.

Gregory's attempts to define the relationship of the two categories more clearly are obscure and contradictory: at times they are lumped together, as they are in the second chapter where they are both said to originate in the 'material spirit' of this world, whereas elsewhere Gregory appears to distinguish evil thoughts from intellectual pursuits: the former being the work of the devil and the latter being derived from 'matter'.76 The reason for this ambivalence is that spiritual authors usually make a distinction between 'sensualists' (capKiKoi) who entertain sinful thoughts and 'intellectuals' (yuyiKoi) who rely exclusively on their human faculties and, according to St Paul, do not accept the spirit and the existence of a supernatural dimension.77 Gregory himself refers to this concept in chapter 22 where he juxtaposes human knowledge acquired from books to which he applies the Pauline phrase 'wisdom made folly', and supernatural knowledge that comes straight from God.78 However, in his programmatic statements about the issue Gregory is not prepared to permit the possibility of a 'neutral' human sphere, set apart from the demonic and the divine.

In order to underscore this point Gregory creates binary oppositions: divine simplicity and unity, as reflected in the brief and repetitive Jesus Prayer of the hesychasts, are repeatedly juxtaposed with demonic multiplicity and division (Siaiprois), which are linked to the prolix intellectual pursuits of the 'wise in the word'.79 However, this neat symmetry is not as self-evident as Gregory would have his readers believe. Close reading of the second chapter shows covert acknowledgement of an alternative framework. The phrase 'cohabitation (ouvoÍK|ois)ofthe hypostatic wisdom' evokes verse 7:28 ofthe Wisdom of Solomon: 'for God loves none but him who cohabits (ouvoiKouvxa) with wisdom'. This verse is found in a passage where wisdom, traditionally identified

77 E.g. Nicetas Stethatos, Chapters, in PG 120, 996BC.

78 Gregory of Sinai, Words, in PG 150,1245c [= ed. Beyer, 41].

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