as well as nurturing a disciplined ascetic life. Monastic renewal has spread from Mount Athos. One elder, Father Ephraim, became abbot of the monastery of Philotheou. As his community grew he was able to send monks to three other monasteries on Athos and also founded at least sixteen monasteries in the USA and Canada.11
Renewal in monastic life has also taken place in other parts ofthe Orthodox world-in Russia, Romania and Egypt. In the Syrian mountainous region ofthe Tur Abdin, now located in south-eastern Turkey, the extinction of monastic life seemed likely with the decline in numbers of the Christian population of the region owing to political pressure. It now seems as though this may be averted, and recent reports suggest a slight but measurable growth in the number of Christians in the region.
A strand of the tradition of modern Orthodox theology developed in nineteenth-century Russia, where intellectual and social ferment gave rise not only to the communist revolution but also to a quieter revolution in Orthodox theological thought. Nicolas Zernov referred to this as the 'Russian Religious Renaissance', which is the title of the book in which he set out the thinking of some of these writers. A remarkable body of writing came from theologians from within this Russian tradition - such writers as Sergii Bulgakov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Berdyaev and Georges Florovsky, and later Vladimir Lossky, Alexander Schmemann and John Meyendorff.12 Florovsky used the slogan 'forward to the Fathers' to sum up a theological programme which studied the Fathers, and found in them a basis for a theology which was faithful to the patristic inheritance but also engaged with a modern society. Some Fathers, previously little studied, became known. As a result of their researches and publishing, Dionysios the Areopagite, Maximos the Confessor, Symeon the New Theologian and Gregory Palamas have come to be read and known to the Christian world. The work of translating, commenting and reflecting on the writing of the Fathers has continued, with a growing volume of published material, especially through the St Vladimir's Seminary Press in
11 See R. Gothoni, Paradise within reach: monasticism and pilgrimage on Mt Athos (Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1993); Gothoni, Tales and truth: pilgrimage on Mount Athos past andpresent (Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1994); G. Speake, Mount Athos: renewal in paradise (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002).
12 See, among others, J. Pain and N. Zernov (eds.), A Bulgakov anthology (London: SPCK, 1976); G. Florovsky, The collected works, 14 vols. (Belmont: Nordland Publishing Co., 1972-87); V. Lossky The mystical theology of the eastern Church (London: J. Clarke, 1957); A. Schmemann, For the life of the world: sacraments and orthodoxy (Crestwood, NY: St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1973). For a full bibliography, see N. Zernov, Russkie pisateli emigratsii: biograficheskie svedeniia i bibliografia ikh knig po bogosloviiu, religioznoi filosofii, tserkovnoi istorii i pravoslavnoi kulture (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1973).
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