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ground.12 Thus Georg Lorec'i resided with Apllarip Arcruni in Tarsos from 1069; Sargis, nephew of Catholicos Petros, settled in the domain of Philaretos Brachamios (Vahram) at Honi in Lykandos in 1073; Grigor's nephew Barsel was consecrated bishop in Ani and then elevated to the rank of catholicos eight years later in Halbat, one of the main monasteries of the small remaining Bagratid kingdom of Lori-Tasir; while there is evidence that Grigor visited Egypt and established another nephew, his namesake, as supreme ecclesiastical authority over the expanding Armenian community there. In other instances, separatist tendencies dictated such moves, as in the case of Vaspurakan, which desired to perpetuate its status as an independent kingdom at least in the ecclesiastical realm by declaring Alt'amar a separate catholicate in 1113. In doing so it instituted a schism that was only settled in 1441. Similarly, it seems that at the beginning of the twelfth century the Seljuqs of Rum briefly toyed with the strategy of segregating their Armenian population from the rest of the Armenian Church by installing Anania, bishop of Sebasteia, as an anti-catholicos.13 Much later it appears that Mamluk opposition to the Latinophile orientation of the Cilician Armenian court was a factor in the creation of an Armenian patriarchate in Jerusalem (1311), with a viewto exercisingjurisdiction over the Christian Armenian community in the Mamluk lands.14

At the same time it corresponded to the spiritual needs of a community that was increasingly dispersed. The disruption to the regular rhythms of transit trade in the mid-eleventh century intensified the exodus of Armenian merchants and artisans, who now swelled the ranks of their countrymen further afield in the relative calm of the Crimea, Kievan Rus, Poland and the western Black Sea coast. They also settled in various Italian ports.15 There were even trading connections with Iceland, where we hear of the arrival of three Armenian 'bishops', presumably at the invitation ofthe Norwegian king, Harald Sigurdson.16 Other Armenian traders were deported eastwards first by the Seljuqs and then by the Mongols to form thriving colonies in north-eastern Iran.17

12 A. Kapoïan-Kouymjian, L'Égypte vue par des Armeniens (Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1988), 7-19.

13 Haïg Berbérian, 'Le patriarcat arménien du Sultanat de Roum', Revue des Études Armeéniennes 3 (1966), 233-41.

14 Bezalel Narkiss (ed.), Armenian art treasures of Jerusalem (Jerusalem: Massada Press, 1979),

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