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policy of russification. Various currents of free thinking circulated even in the Gevorgian Spiritual Academy at Ejmiacin, the highest Armenian educational establishment in Transcaucasia during the tsarist period; nor was the Armenian catholicos free from suspicion by the Russian authorities. In line with this, in 1885 the viceroy of Transcaucasia, Prince A. M. Dondukov-Korsakov, ordered the closure of the network of some 500 Armenian church schools in the region and their replacement by Russian institutions. However, Armenians undermined the measure by setting up 'secret' schools, forcing a reversal of policy and the reopening of the schools the following year, though the instructors were replaced and the curriculum more closely monitored.

A second attempt to abrogate the Polozhenie was made by Nicholas II on 2 January 1903 through his viceroy Prince Golitsyn, ordering him to confiscate church property and to transfer the Armenian schools to Russian jurisdiction in order to advance the cause of russification. Once again it had the opposite effect. Mkrtic Xrimean, now catholicos, resisted the measure; he instigated protest marches; violent clashes ensued, leading to the stabbing of the viceroy by political extremists. The resulting concessions included replacing the viceroy with a figure more amenable to Armenian culture and the repeal of the confiscation of church properties on 1 August 1905.

Nevertheless, an impressive array of Armenian intellectuals and artists left Russia to study in various German universities over this period, many enriching church life with new approaches, which sought to integrate east and west. Scholars and theologians like Karapet Ter-Mkrtcean, Eruand Ter-Minasean and Garegin Yovsep'eanc' studied at the universities of Leipzig, Berlin, Halle and Tubingen. Their experiences promoted a movement for reform, which, however, was overtaken, as in Russia, by circumstances before it achieved its full potential. One of the main achievements was the introduction of the Gregorian calendar.54 The multitalented musicologist Komitas Vardapet (Solomon Solomonean), originally from Istanbul, laid the foundation of his work on medieval notation and modern harmonisation in Berlin.55 On his return, he established a polyphonic choir at Ejmiacin and produced three-part and four-part settings ofthe liturgy. Similarly, the four-part setting by Makar Ekmalean, which subsequently established itself in general usage, was published at Leipzig in 1896. After studying at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts in the 1880s, the artist Vardges Sureneanc' produced a series of paintings on ecclesiastical

54 This change does not apply to the Armenian Patriarchate ofJerusalem, whose liturgical calendar is still governed by the status quo decree of 1857.

55 Komitas Vardapet, Armenian sacred and folk music, trans. D. Gulbenkian [Caucasus World] (Richmond: Curzon Press, 1998).

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