Europeans as the Magnificent, so the Greeks gave the same appellation to one of his patriarchs, Joasaph II (1554-65).53

All the time, the patriarchate of Constantinople remained at odds with Rome. In the year 1483-84 the patriarch Symeon I presided over an 'ecumenical' council which abolished the union of churches signed in Florence in 1439.54 In the middle of the sixteenth century the patriarch Dionysios II (1546-56) allegedly approved a visit of the titular metropolitan of Caesarea, Metrophanes, to the Vatican, which earned the patriarch a severe rebuke from synod and he was lucky to retain his throne.55 In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII sent as his representative to Constantinople the Venetian Livius Cellini, who, among other tasks, visited the patriarch Jeremias II in order to explain the reform of the calendar, which the pope had recently carried out and which remains associated with his name. The patriarch responded evasively, displaying both religious conservatism and traditional suspicion towards Rome.56

On the other hand, the patriarchs established contacts with the Protestants. Stephan Gerlach, a Lutheran chaplain to the Austrian embassy, who spent five years in Constantinople (1573-78), served as an intermediary between the Lutherans and the patriarch Jeremias II. Although nothing positive on the theological level resulted from these contacts, they did produce Martin Crusius's Turcograecia, which made known to western Europeans the problems of the Great Church in captivity.57

The personality of Jeremias II dominates the history of the patriarchate during the second half of the sixteenth century.58 Although his term of office was often troubled - he was twice removed from the patriarchal throne - he was active on the international scene and was the first ecumenical patriarch to visit north-eastern Europe. He travelled as far as Poland and Muscovy with a view to mediating among the peoples of the region, who were then divided on religious matters. His journey culminated in the foundation of a new Orthodox patriarchate, that of Russia, with its seat at Moscow, where Jeremias

54 Apostolopoulos, 'Ispos KcbSiÇ, 123-33. Cf. Zachariadou, Aéxa ToupKiKa 'éyypa<pa, 39-40.

55 M. Manoussacas, Lettere Patriarcali inedite (1547-1806) (Venice: Istituto éllenico di studi bizantini e postbizantini, 1968), 5-10.

56 O. Halecki, From Florence to Brest (1439-1596) [Sacrum Poloniae millennium 5] (Rome and New York: Fordham University Press, 1958), 214-15.

57 E. Legrand, 'Notice biographique sur Jean et Théodose Zygomalas', Recueil de textes et de traductions publié par les Professeurs de l'Ecole des langues orientales vivantes a l'occasion du VIIIe Congrès international des orientalistes tenu a Stockholm en 1889 (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1889), 67-264, esp. 78-86. Cf. G. de Gregorio, 'Costantinopoli - Tubinga -Roma, ovvero la "duplice conversione" di un manuscritto bizantino (', BZ 93 (2000), 37-107, esp. 78-88.

58 C. Hannick and K. P. Todt, 'Jeremy II', in Theologie byzantine et sa tradition, 551-615.

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