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some of the European powers, notably France, were supporting the Catholic separatist position, while also lending their aid to the Greeks currently in revolt against central authority, the sultan took reprisals on the Catholic Armenian community in 1827 and deported them from the capital to the hinterlands. However, Ottoman defeat in the war led in May 1831 to the allied insistence on the community's return and its full separate representation in a Catholic millet.46 Three years later their ethnarch Yakobos was elevated to the rank of patriarch on a par with his Apostolic counterpart.

In 1810 eschatological concerns impelled the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to spread the faith in the Near East.47 One of the first steps was to publish the Bible in classical Armenian and then, for the first time, in the modern vernacular. As their materials found a rapport among Armenians, it was decided to launch a more concentrated mission in 1830 under the experienced leadership of Eli Smith, H. Dwight and W Goddell. Despite the protests of the patriarch, they set up schools in the capital, Izmir, and other centres. Requests made over the next few years for the creation of an Evangelical millet won the support of Prussia, Britain and the USA. Finally, on 1 July 1846 they announced the opening of the first Evangelical Armenian Church of Constantinople, and their separate status received the sultan's ratification the following November. Evangelical missionaries went on to found institutes of higher learning in the provinces, such as Euphrates College at Xarberd and Anatolia College in Marsovan, near Sivas, which gave Armenian youth a basic grounding in the arts and sciences, often acting as a conduit for graduates to continue their studies in the USA and make their fortune there. Later in the century, whole evangelical communities, such as those of Xarberd and Bitlis, emigrated to America to practise their religion free of interference.

Tanzimat and the Armenian constitution

Since the eighteenth century an increasing number oftalented young Ottoman Armenians have gone abroad to complete their education, usually in medicine or agriculture, mostly in Italy and France. They were exposed there to a more liberal, progressive political philosophy emphasising broader participation in

46 Hagop Barsamian, 'The eastern question and the tanzimat era', in The Armenian people from ancient to modern times, ed. R. G. Hovannisian (New York: St Martin's Press, 1997), 11,186.

47 The same impulse led to the settling of representatives of the Basler Mission in the area of Samax in southern Caucasia around the same time. Their converts were largely followers of a neo-Tondrakite sect, which had centred on the town of Xnus.

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