a way of reminding the emperor and his adviser that union could never be wholly a matter of politics.41

At the same time, the gap separating the unionists from the main body of the church was highlighted by the case of Prochoros Kydones, who mounted an attack on Palamite theology. His use of Aquinas was serious enough, but his challenge was even more dangerous because it was launched from Mount Athos, where Prochoros was a monk. Some ofthe fiercest criticism of Palamism came from monks dissatisfied by the way that the new emphasis on mysticism was displacing the liturgy and the common life as the focus of the monastic ideal. Prochoros was expelled from Athos in 1367 and then brought before the patriarchal synod, which condemned him the next year as an enemy of Orthodoxy. It says much aboutthe divided state of Byzantium that hisbrother-still the emperor's chief minister - was unable to save him. Bringing Prochoros to trial at this juncture was designed to discredit his brother's unionist strategy.

The condemnation of Prochoros only made an understanding with Rome more essential. Accompanied by Demetrios Kydones the emperor went to Rome where in the winter of 1369/70 he made his personal submission to Pope Urban V It was all in vain. No tangible help was forthcoming. The emperor finally limped back to Constantinople in October 1371 to discover that the fate of his empire had effectively been decided the previous month at the battle of the Maritsa, where the Ottomans defeated the Serbs. John Palaiologos capitulated and became a tributary of the Ottoman emir Murad I (1362-89). With the collapse of the unionist strategy the influence at court of its architect Demetrios Kydones waned. Other Latin sympathisers either had to temper their opinions or were forced out of Constantinople. Of these some went to Latin courts scattered through the Levant, while others found a home at the papal curia or in the Italian cities, where their scholarship and learning were often admired.

There are parallels between the unionist policies of Michael Palaiologos and of his descendant John V In both cases, a small but powerful elite around the emperor sought union with Rome against stubborn opposition. There were, however, differences. While Michael was able to bully the ecclesiastical hierarchy into accepting his strategy, John had very little influence over the church. Against this Michael's unionist policies did not create any solid body of Latin sympathisers; rather they instilled into Byzantines of all shades of opinion distaste for things Latin. This changed with Demetrios and Prochoros Kydones. They were intellectual converts to Rome. They believed that

41 J. Meyendorff,'Projets de concile oecuménique en 1367. Un dialogue inédit entre Jean Cantacuzene et le legat Paul', DOP14 (1960), 147-77.

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