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his friendship with Korais. The curriculum included experimental physics, advanced mathematics and modern philosophy, besides an extensive programme of classical studies and religious education. Proios retired to become metropolitan of Philadelphia. His successors were other well-known Enlightenment scholars such as Stephanos Doungas and Constantinos Koumas.43

The intensity ofideological conflict in Greek society in the decade leadingup to the outbreak of the Greek revolution in 1821 eventually sealed the attitude of the church. This became evident during Gregory V's third patriarchate (181821). The patriarch returned to the throne from his exile on Mount Athos full of zeal for the defence of the faith. The patriarch and the synod implemented a series of pastoral measures in an attempt to stem the tide ofideological change. An encyclical in 1819 warned the faithful about the detrimental effects that the teaching of modern science and mathematics could have for the true faith and the salvation of the soul. A pamphlet entitled Crito's Reflections, which criticised the construction of a sumptuous mansion for one of the prelates of the church and suggested that the expense could be better used on the endowment of a school, was ceremoniously burnt in the courtyard of the patriarchate at the suggestion of the chief censor of the patriarchal press. Finally in March 1821, in a climate of alarm over the storm which was brewing, the patriarch convoked a synod whose task was to condemn outright 'philosophical teaching' and its major living exponents.44

This was the conclusion of three decades of confrontation between the church and the ideologies of modernity, a confrontation triggered by reactions to the French Revolution, which brought to an end a long-standing tradition in the Orthodox Church whereby the moderate versions of the Enlightenment were readily enlisted by the church in discharging her pastoral work and in promoting her educational initiatives.

43 Gedeon, XpoviKá, 179-89. C. Koumas gives his own account in 'laTopíai twv ávdpw-mvrxiv npáíjstxiv(Vienna: Anton von Haykul, 1832), xii, 591-5.

44 For details see Kitromilides, Aia<pwTiap.ó<;, 447-57.

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