(Eagle of Vaspurakan). He also founded a school employing modern pedagogical methods and rejecting the application of corporal punishment. Though damaged in the massacres of 1895-96, it continued to function until 1915. The provisions of the constitution, with certain adaptations, still govern the Armenian patriarchate of Constantinople and catholicate of Cilicia.

Entry of southern Caucasia into the Russian Empire

The establishment of the Qajar dynasty in Iran in 1794 renewed strong central rule in the country and compelled the submission of the regional khans, including the king of Georgia, who attempted to counterbalance this by cultivating closer ties with Russia. In the course of the first Russo-Persian War (1804-13) all Georgia, including the important commercial city of Tiflis with a majority Armenian population, was annexed, while the second (1826-28), in which Armenian volunteers fought alongside the Russian army, led to the Russian annexation of the khanates of Erevan and Naxjewan.50 Moreover, by the treaty of Adrianople (1829) some 90,000 Armenians settled on Russian territory newly acquired from the Ottoman Empire, including a number of Catholic communities. As a result, Armenians once again constituted a majority in areas of the eastern part of their historic homeland.

These developments had a series of implications for ecclesiastical administration. Ejmiacin's incorporation into the Russian Empire meant the cession to the patriarch of Constantinople of any residual authority within Ottoman territory. In 1844 Ejmiacin accepted the patriarchate of Constantinople's complete internal autonomy and renounced the practice of dispatching its own representatives (nuirak) into the Ottoman sphere to distribute the holy chrism and to collect funds from the faithful.51

The Polozhenie (statute) of i836 determined the Armenian Church's legal status in the Russian Empire. From now on the clergy and lay representatives were to put forward two names for the office of catholicos, leaving the final choice to the tsar, to whom the successful candidate was to swear an oath of allegiance. The catholicos of Ejmiacin obtained primacy over the catholicate of Caucasian Albania as well as over the other five Armenian dioceses of the empire (Erevan, Georgia, Sirvan, NorNaxjewan-Bessarabia and Astrakhan). A

50 Bournoutian, The Khanate of Erevan, 13-26. For the situation of the Armenian population in Tiflis, seeR. G. Suny, ThemakingoftheGeorgiannation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, i988), 88.

51 Bardakjian, 'The rise of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople', 96.

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