with the issue of the encyclical Quae in Patriarchatu, which demanded unconditional submission. The aging patriarch submitted in 1877.62 At least he had the satisfaction, just before he died, of knowing that the papacy had made concessions on the appointment of bishops.63

For the Chaldean Church the twentieth century has brought destruction and renewal. The Chaldeans lost many of their clergy among the tens of thousands of those massacred in the Turkish persecutions of 1915-17. Among those Chaldeans who were murdered were such luminaries as bishop Addai Shir,64 who made contributions to the study of Syriac literature through providing catalogues of manuscript collections in the possession of the Chaldean Church as well as editions of Syriac texts.

The renewal of Chaldean Catholic institutions began after the Second World War underthe leadership of Patriarch Paul II Cheikho (1958-89) and was carried through by his successor, Patriarch Mar Raphael I Bidawid (1989-2003). Intimes of conflict and political upheaval these two Chaldean patriarchs navigated the community through the difficult and challenging seas now charted by the Christians of the Middle East: between minority and majority, between Christianity and Islam. Elected patriarch of the Chaldeans in December 1958, Paul Cheikho had to nurse his community through some very difficult times in modern Iraqi history. His near thirty-year tenure saw three revolutions (1958,1963,1968), three regimes, the emergence of an oil-driven economy, the Kurdish revolt, and the long Iran-Iraq war. Cheikho did all he could to adapt the organisation of his church to difficult and changing times. The Kurdish uprising brought new travails to the Christians in Iraq. Over the course of the fighting between the Iraqi army and the Kurds, many Christian villages and churches were destroyed or plundered, including in June 1969 the monastery of Rabban Hurmidz near Alqosh - a major spiritual centre of the Chaldean Church.65 These events led to the traumatic displacement of Christians from the north of Iraq, where they had formed prosperous farming communities. Between 1961 and 1995 the Christians living in the north dwindled from the million mark to around 150,000. They moved southwards into the large cities of Iraq. Paul Cheikho met the challenge, constructing some twenty-five churches in Baghdad to serve the needs of his Chaldean Catholic community.66

62 J. Habbi, 'Les Chaldéens et les Malabares au XIXe siècle', Oriens Christianus 64 (1980), 82-108.

63 To be extended still further in 1889.

64 Assad Sauma Assad, 'Addai Shir, 1867-1915', Harp 8/9 (1995-96), 209-20.

65 Baum and Winkler, The Church of the East, 146.

66 See sub 'Iraq', in Proche-Orient Chretien 39 (1989), 346.

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