took the precaution - in contravention of accepted practice - of consecrating his nephew as his successor. The latter was summoned to the capital a year after assuming office in 1058 by the new emperor Constantine X Doukas, who required him to accept Chalcedonian Christology and the supremacy of the patriarch of Constantinople: in other words, to renounce his autocephaly. On refusing, he was held in captivity until 1062 and then confined to Sebasteia. On his death three years later the emperor at first prohibited a new election, but then relented against the cession of the Armenian kingdom of Kars.8 The candidate subsequently cleared for election to the catholicate was Vahram, an avid philhellene, who had previously entered Byzantine service and had held the post of duke of Mesopotamia for ten years from 1048. In this capacity he destroyed the sectarian stronghold of T'ondrak and dispersed its adherents.9 He belonged to the house of Pahlawuni, which claimed descent from the line of St Gregory the Illuminator. His consecration as Catholicos Grigor II inaugurated an unbroken series of hierarchs from that lineage over the next century and a half.

The second half of the eleventh century witnessed the consolidation of Seljuq power in Anatolia through the capture of Ani in 1064, reinforced in 1071 by the decisive victory over Byzantine forces at Mantzikert. The resulting power vacuum created the conditions which allowed Armenians to establish de facto autonomy in the hill country south of the Taurus range.10 Its relative security led to a southward movement in the centre of gravity of the Armenian polity and the foundation of a series of small fiefdoms. These gradually evolved into a new kingdom in Cilicia (1198-1375), which was to play an important role in the political and religious history of the region over the rest of our period.11

The fragmentation and dispersion of the Armenian nation is dramatically etched in the constant travels of the catholicos Grigor II (1065-1105), as he sought to minister to his far-flung flock. With earlier precedents in mind, petty Armenian princes sought to persuade the catholicos to take up residence on their territories, as a means of strengthening their claims to legitimacy. Sheer expediency forced Grigor to raise others to the rank of catholicos, so that they would have the authority to take the necessary decisions on the

8 Cowe, 'Armenian immigration patterns', 125.

9 AvedisK. Sanjian, 'Gregory Magistros: an Armenian Hellenist', in To 'EAArviKÔv: Studies in honor of Speros Vryonis,Jr. (New Rochelle, NY: Caratzas, 1993), ii, 111-58.

10 This corresponded very roughly to the former themes of Lykandos, Melitene, Tarsos, Seleukeia, Antioch and Edessa.

11 For a convenient map of these territories, see C. Mutafian, Le royaume arménien de Cilicie xiie-xive siècle (Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1993), 18.

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