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grammar for missionaries, but his magnum opus is a three-volume bilingual treatise Conciliationis ecclesiae Armenae cum Romana (1650-61), which for the first time provided the western public with a connected history of Armenian Christianity. Despite treating Armenian dogmatic 'errors' from a Roman perspective, he nevertheless defended the Armenian orthodoxy against the attacks of more unreasonable Latin critics.19

Galanus was accompanied by a French colleague Louis-Marie Pidou de Saint-Olon (1637-1717), who succeeded him as director in 1666 and introduced the students to Jesuit school drama, which was already well established in Poland, as in his native France.20 His historical tragicomedy of 1668, The Martyrdom of St Hrip'sime, relates the impact of the death in Armenia of a Roman martyr in the early fourth century as a catalyst for the country's conversion to Christianity. It directed an only slightly veiled message towards the local Armenian community.21 In the epilogue Hrip'sime, already sanctified, descends from the heavenly places to address the audience directly. She will continue to be their tutelary as long as they remain faithful to the church of her homeland, i.e. that of Rome, a point the author underlines in his dedication to Archbishop T'orosowicz, when he claims that the doctrine extra ecclesiam nulla salus applies only to the Catholic faith.22 Thereafter developments were swift. In 1668 Pidou arranged the archbishop's dispatch to Rome, where he remained for seven years. In the meantime, Clement X assigned as coadjutor Bishop Vardan Yunanian, a former pupil of the L'viv college, who succeeded T'orosowicz on his death in 1681. There then ensued a gradual stabilisation of the union with Rome until the area passed under Russian control in 1772.

New Julfa

Towards the end of the protracted struggle between the Ottomans and the Safavids Shah 'Abbas (1587-1629) evacuated a swathe of Armenian border

19 Oskanyan, Hay girk's 1512-1800 t'vakannerin, 32-5, 37-8.

20 See F. Richard, 'Missionnaires francais en Arménie auXVIIe siècle', in Arménie entre Orient et Occident, 200. And for school drama, see P. Lewin, 'The Ukrainian school theater in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: an expression of the baroque', Harvard Ukrainian Studies 5 (1981), 54-65.

21 So devoted were Latin missionaries serving among the Armenians to the memory of Hrip'sime that they even attempted to steal her bones from the old capital ofVaiarsapat. See M. A. van den Oudenrijn, 'Der heilige Gregor der Erleuchter und die Heiligen Hripsimeanz in Unitorien', Handés Amséreay 62 (1948), 588-96.

22 See S. P. Cowe, 'The play "martyrdom of St. Hrip'sime": a novel variant on the theme of Armenia's Christianization', in Hay grakanut'yune ev k'ristoneut'yune [Armenian Literature and Christianity] (Erevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 2002), 96-110.

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