Gottingen and a follower of Korais's views. He was to play the key role in the implementation of the ecclesiastical settlement.8
The ecumenical patriarchate under successive patriarchs rejected the settlement as uncanonical and broke off communion with the church of Greece, which it considered schismatic. The patriarchate's disagreement was primarily with the procedures followed in proclaiming autocephaly, not with auto-cephaly per se, to which Greece as a sovereign independent state was entitled according to the canons and the traditions of the church. But it took a long time to find the appropriate procedure for the accession of the church in Greece to autocephaly. In 1831 Patriarch Konstantios I and Prince Milos Obrenovic may have been able, without serious difficulty, to agree on the canonical procedures for the establishment of an autonomous church in the principality of Serbia,9 but a similar agreement with Greece took seventeen years to reach. Eventually in July 1850, during the second patriarchate of Anthimos IV (1848-52), an agreement on Greek autocephaly was reached, once the Greek state and the church in Greece accepted unconditionally terms that in the patriarchate's judgement satisfied the requirements of the holy canons. On 29 June 1850, in response to formal applications by the Greek government on behalf of the church in Greece, the ecumenical patriarchate issued a 'Synodal Tome', granting autocephaly to the church of Greece, under a synod of bishops to be presided over by the metropolitan of Athens.10
The canonical aspect of the final resolution of the problem of Greek auto-cephaly is important in that it set a precedent for handling similar situations in the life of Orthodoxy later on in the nineteenth and in the twentieth century. More importantly, however, from the point of view of the history of Christianity itself, the issue of Greek autocephaly set up a model and supplied the canonical basis for sanctioning the piecemeal transformation of the universal Orthodox Church into national churches. Paradoxically, what had originally been an Erastian church settlement on the Protestant model underlay this transformation, while the ecumenical patriarchate, once its own formal requirements were satisfied, supplied the canonical sanction for turning regional churches into instruments of secular authority. The latter in turn used the churches for the enhancement of its own power by enlisting them in a leading role in nationalist projects.
8 C. Frazee, The Orthodox Church and independent Greece 1821-1852 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), 103-5, 125-70.
10 Ibid., 618. Cf.Metallinos, 'EAAaSiKou, 123-277.
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