metropolitan of Oungrovlachia. While residing in his Trinity monastery, Evtimii answered questions on monastic discipline put to him by Anthimos, metropolitan 'of part of Oungrovlachia' and by Nikodemos. Nikodemos, himself a product of Athos, assigned by Patriarch Philotheos to Oungrovlachia, proceeded to found important monasteries at Vodita and Tismana. Evtimii also answered questions from a fellow-Bulgarian and former monk of Athos, Kiprian, a future metropolitan of Rus, who spent part of the long interval before taking up this post in scholarly labours in the Stoudios monastery in Constantinople, where he translated the Ladder of John Klimax. It is one of several Slavonic translations datable to around the turn of the fourteenth century, which have survived from the Stoudios scriptorium.

Kiprian proved eager to inculcate a combination of accurate book learning and carefully tempered asceticism more deeply and widely among the Rus. He himself translated the prayers and sermons of Philotheos, which became popular in Rus. He paid particular attention to the recently codified and amended texts for the Eucharist and daily offices in use in the Great Church and he saw to their translation, doing some of the work on their detailed rubrics himself. Among them was an updated version of the Synodikon of Orthodoxy, wherein the theology of Gregory Palamas was solemnly endorsed. A copy was sent to the clergy of Pskov, as Kiprian noted in a letter in 1395: 'I sent you the correct version of the Synodikon of Constantinople, which we also follow here [in Moscow] in commemorating [the Orthodox] and cursing the heretics: you, too, should conform to it.'88 Thus due performance of the liturgy using accurate texts was indispensable for keeping the faith pure across the land. Kiprian was anxiousto maintain worship andbeliefin common with eastern Christians in Jerusalem and elsewhere, staying true to the Church Fathers. But he looked to the vigorous ecumenical patriarchs of his own day for determination of best liturgical practice and church discipline. Such an attitude entailed acceptance of the imperial order, which the patriarchs propounded. It is probable that Kiprian took the initiative in having the basileus's name entered into Moscow's liturgical diptychs, as in Constantinople.89

Just as Kiprian's advocacy of the imperial order as a fitting casement for Orthodoxy has something of the zeal of the convert, so the networks of monkish instructors, patriarchal staff, and metropolitans assigned to remote sees might seem little more than a mutual admiration society. The intensity of their personal relations and their spiritual and physical journeys can be

88 'Gramota mitropolita Kipriana pskovskomu dukhovenstvu', in RIB vi, col. 241; Meyen-dorff, Byzantium, 123-4, 260.

89 Meyendorff, Byzantium, 253-6.

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