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art and religion in Russia, effect ofMongol conquest on, 276-8 conversion to Islam, 387 eastern Christianities under Islam affected by conquests of, 386-9 Ghazan (Ilkhaan ofIran), conversion to

Islam of, 387, 422, 423-4 religious toleration under, 386, 387 Monophysites, 375, 459. See also Coptic

Christianity; Ethiopian Christianity Monothelite heresy, 377, 385 Mordvins, 328

Moscow. See Russia and Russian Church, as specific site in Moscow, e.g. Kremlin Mother of God. See Virgin Mary Mott, John, 552

Mouchli, church of St Kyriake at, 98 Mount Athos artistic renovations of mid-i6th century, i66 assignments throughout empire given to monks of, 39 Athonite Academy, 202, 205 Bars'kyj's visits to, 2i8, 2i9-26 Bulgarian patronage and political aspirations, i5-i6,37 donations to, 98, i56, i60-i Gregory Palamas's theology, triumph of, 63-6 hesychasm

Byzantine Commonwealth and, 39 as centre of, 62, i02 criticism of,68

Gregory of Sinai's prayer manuals and, i08-i0

modern decline and renewal of, 586

Nil Sorskii at, 269

pilgrimage to, 89

power of monks of,i25

premier allegiance to Byzantine emperor,

Russian liturgical books burnt by monks of, 3i5

Russian monastic revival inspired by, 339 Russian patronage of, i68 Serbian patronage and political aspirations, i4-2i, i6i

Slavonic textual community created by

36-4i

Mount Athos monasteries

Chilandar (Serbia), 15-20, 36,37,150 Dionysiou, 20,156,158, 203, 220 Docheiariou, 20, 82,165, 223 Esphigmenou, 20, 583 Great Lavra, 37,160,162,165,167, 220, 221 Iberian (Georgian) and Amalfite houses, 15, 20

Iveron, 162 Kastamonitou, 158

Koutloumousiou (Wallachia), 26-7,158, 220

Pantokrator, 220 Philotheou, 587 Rus houses, 15, 20, 218 St Panteleimon (Rus house), 15, 20, 218 St Paul, 157,158,161,163, 220 Simonopetra, 158,162 Stavroniketa, 168 Vatopedi, 158,162,163, 202 Xenophon, 166 Xeropotamou, 164, 221, 222 Zographou, 37, 586 Mount Athos under Ottoman rule adelphata (monastic annuity), 161,164 confiscation and redemption of landed properties (1568-69), 166-8 donations to, 156,160-1 early understanding between monks and

Ottomans, establishment of, 156-9 hesychasm, influence of,i59 Islamic principles of religious tolerance working to advantage of, 155-6 number of monks and prosperity of monastery 161-2 official passage under Ottoman lordship (i432), i62 safeguarding property by donations to

Mount Athos, 160-1,162-4 shipping and commercial interests, 164-6 Mount Galesion, monastery of, 155 Mount Latros, monastery of, 155 Mount Olympos (Ulus Dag) in Bithynia, monasteries of,i55 Mount Sinai, St Catherine's monastery on, 37,

155,182, 216, 218,399 Mouzalon, Theodore, 61 Mrk'uz, Yovhannes, 436-7 aTMufaddaL ibn Abî'l-Fada'il, 396 Muhammad "Ali, 490, 493, 503, 521 Müller, Ludwig, 547 Murad I (sultan), 68,156,157,160,161 Murad II (sultan), i62, i64, i75 Murad III (sultan), i77, i86

Muradbekyan, Xoren, 451

Mus, Armenian monastery of the Holy

Precursor in,443 Muslim Brotherhood, 498 Mxit'arists, Uniate Armenian order of,44i,

443, 447, 455 mysticism hesychastic. See hesychasm of universal Christianity, 329 Mytilene, Gattelusio family of Demetrios Kydones and, 70 Palaiologos family, intermarriage with, 70

Nadir Shah, 437 Nagolkin, Leonid, 338 Nahya monastery, Russia, 399 Nalbandean, Mik'ayel, 447 Nalean, Yakob, 440 Na'od (Ethiopian ruler), 473 Napoleon, 206, 441 Narekac'i, Anania, 406 Nasedka, Ivan, 307 al-Nasir (caliph), 420

505, 506

nationalism and Orthodoxy, 229. See also Armenian Christianity; autocephalous Orthodox churches; Greek Revolution (i82i) and independence Arab nationalism

Copts and, 497, 498, 50i patriarchates ofAntioch and Jerusalem, 245-6 in Balkans, 229 Bulgarian exarchate, 240-4 Copts, 497, 498, 501, 503 dangers and dilemmas posed by nationalism, 247-9 diaspora ofOrthodox, 247, 248 in European context, 369 French Revolution, effects of, 205-9, 229

India, Armenian Christianity in, 442-3 initial opposition and later acceptance of nationalism by ecumenical patriarchate, 246-7 modern national churches, 59i-4 Ottoman politics, nationalist upsurge in,

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