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considerable importance on the advice he received from Makarios of Patmos, as he lay on his deathbed in January i737, that he should abandon his travels and should dedicate himself to the study of Greek, to benefit himself and his homeland.45 While still at Patmos, it led him to inquire about the possibility of teaching Greek back in Kiev. Many years later, as we shall see, he received a positive response from the Kiev Academy.

While the exact impact of the Greek schools of learning on Bars'kyj is difficult to establish, there are a number of significant shifts in method and approach apparent in his journal. There is a growing critical awareness in his assessment of his sources. While the authority of scripture remains paramount, other literary and oral sources are rigorously assessed for their reliability. The authenticity of a chrysobull had to be established before the information that it contained could be accepted. An oral tradition needed to be tested against the written sources before it could be proclaimed as valid, and the fact that something was accepted by the Orthodox tradition as being authentic could not of itself be accepted as a validation. This critical attitude is apparent not only in a new interest in antiquarian and ethnographic detail, but also, more concretely, in his discussion both of the Kykkos icon and of Noah's stone at the monastery of the Archangels following his third visit to Cyprus.46 While curiosity and the desire to experience different lands and customs were features of Bars'kyj's journal from the outset, new experiences were at first recorded within a fairly tight framework of a didactic religious interpretation. But by the third section of the journal Bars'kyj was examining, drawing and researching non-Christian buildings and monuments with the same care and precision that he had previously reserved for purely Christian monuments. For example, when he visited the island of Samos in i73i, he may have condemned Hera as a pagan goddess, but he proceeded to give a careful description of her sanctuary, which provided measurements and praised its beauty.47 There is a similar fascination with the appearance, dress and customs of foreign peoples. Whereas in earlier sections ofthe travel journal, races were largely condemned because of their religion and were then dismissed as evil and hence not worthy of comment, later in the journal there is a whole wealth of closely observed detail concerning folk dress, headgear, jewellery and local customs. There are lengthy descriptions of folk costumes on Simi,48 local pottery on Kos,49

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