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his predecessors' sporadic attempts to make sure that all candidates for the priesthood were literate and committed to the official policies of the church.29 Since, in his view, an embattled church required educated priests, he tried to found a theological academy in Moscow. The first two attempts, however, collapsed because of the theological and political controversies between the so-called Latinophile and Grecophile parties within the ecclesiastical elite -both of which, in reality, adapted international Latin scholarship to Orthodox uses.

His greatest achievement, however, was the agreement, concluded with the support of Hetman Samoilovych in 1686, that the new metropolitan of Kiev, Gedeon, would transfer his allegiance from Constantinople to the patriarch of Moscow. This accord ended a long period of conflict and ambiguity. Since 1657, the metropolitan church of Kiev had been divided along secular political lines: the metropolitans of Kiev had resided in Polish-controlled territory while the Moscow government and hierarchy recognised a 'vicar' of the Orthodox church in Left-Bank Ukraine.

Gedeon's consecration in Moscow put an end to the impasse. He was a strong candidate for the office. As bishop of Lutsk on the Right Bank, he staunchly defended the Orthodox cause at much personal cost. Many leading members of the clergy, however, strongly opposed him and refused to participate in the electoral synod because of his well-known conviction that the best way to defend Orthodoxy was to accept Moscow's jurisdiction over the church in Ukraine. Nevertheless, Gedeon and Samoilovych pressed on and, in the end, under great political pressure, a new ecumenical patriarch reluctantly accepted the new relationship between Moscow and Kiev.

Although Gedeon had done his best to guarantee the preservation of the independent traditions of the metropolitan church of Kiev, the Russian hierarchy soon began to treat dioceses and parishes in Ukraine just like any others in the Russian Orthodox Church. And since then, the fates of the Orthodox churches in Ukraine and Russia have been inextricably linked, with profound consequences for both.30

The partition of Ukraine after 1654 also changed the fate of the Uniate Church. On the verge of extinction during the Khmelnytsky revolt, the Uniates began to rebuild in the territories still ruled from Warsaw and, by the end of the seventeenth century, all of the Orthodox dioceses in the areas of Ukraine under Polish rule had accepted the union.

30 Kharlampovich, Malorossiiskoe vliianie, 214-32.

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