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When describing the restoration of the patriarchate the sixteenth-century sources fall back on 'foundation myths', which were then reproduced by later sources. These were composed in order to extol the sultan's deep respect for the patriarchal institution and his affection for Gennadios personally. The historical context in which these traditions place Gennadios's appointment to the patriarchate is imaginary. They report that the event took place immediately after the capture of Constantinople, but Gennadios was then marching together with many other prisoners from Constantinople towards Adrianople, as he himself testifies. A further embellishment has the appointment taking place in the sultan's palace, after which several courtiers escorted the patriarch back to his residence. The 'myth' insisted that the whole procedure accorded with the old religious tradition which dictated that first the holy synod elect the patriarch and then the monarch accept and confirm its decision, but contemporary evidence shows that it happened exactly the other way round: the sultan appointed Gennadios as patriarch and then synod accepted and confirmed his will.13

Gennadios endured several months' captivity in the Ottoman capital of Adrianople before the intervention of rich and influential Byzantines employed in the palace or the Ottoman financial administration secured his release. If they were not personally acquainted with Gennadios, they had certainly heard about him, as he was the leader of the anti-unionist party in Constantinople. Among these personages were Demetrios Apokaukos and Thomas Katav-olenos, secretaries to the sultan, both of whom had also served as his envoys to foreign states. It seems more than probable that it was they who suggested to the sultan that Gennadios might be the right person to fill the vacant patriarchal see.14

As was the rule with all appointees, whether entrusted with a religious, military or administrative post, Gennadios will have received from the sultan a special document, called a berat,15 which set out his duties and prerogatives. The berat given to Gennadios has not been preserved; the earliest surviving patriarchal berats date to the years 1483 and 1525.16 These nevertheless provide

13 Braude, 'Foundation myths in the millet system', 77-9. On the sources, see Zachariadou, AéKa ToupKiKa'éyypa<pa, 42-7.

15 H. Inalcik, 'The status of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch under the Ottomans', Turcica: (Melanges offerts a Irme Melikoffpar ses collegues, disciples et amis), 21-23 (1991), 415-18. Cf. Inalcik, 'Ottoman archival materials on millets', I, 447; P. Konortas, 'Odwp.aviKS<; dswp^q-asis yia to OiKouiiSViKÓ üaTpiapxsio, 17 os-ápxh 2oou aió>va (Athens: Alexandreia, 1998), 53-5.

16 Zachariadou, AsKaTovpKiKa'syypa<pa, 157-62,174-8.

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