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Chariton, the Wallachian monks, leading holy men of the mountain, and Vladislav; the latter making generous donations by way of encouragement. In 1372 Chariton was appointed metropolitan of Oungrovlachia in succession to Hyakinthos, supplementing Athos's links with outlying non-grecophone populations of substantial means, while the 'metropolitan of part of Oungrovlachia' was a former senior official of the Great Church, Daniel Kritopou-los, who now took the name of Anthimos. Chariton later added the charge of protos of the Holy Mountain to his responsibilities. Thus an intricate web joined Athos and the imperial-ecclesiastical establishment to the Wallachian elite. While many threads were of a personal nature, they often proved durable. At the same time institutional links were forged with other potentates of the region. For example, in 1391 a lesser voevoda, Balitza, and his brother presented their monastery of St Michael in MaramureĀ§ (near Sighetu Marmatiei) to the patriarchate; as a 'patriarchal monastery', it received direct supervision from Constantinople, while the abbot dispensed ecclesiastical justice locally, serving as patriarchal exarch.58

Another important institutional linkbetween Constantinople and a nascent polity north of the Danube delta had been forged by 1386 with the creation of the metropolitan see of'Maurovlachia' (Moldavia). The local ruler, however, expelled the patriarch's appointee to the new see and imposed his own nominee, a relative named Joseph: a fait accompli, which the patriarchate finally accepted in 1401. Meanwhile monasteries were being founded in Moldavia, not least at Suceava, the princely stronghold and metropolitan see. The fact that neighbouring Galicia was now under Catholic rule following the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385 acted as a stimulus to Byzantine interest in the region. When Joseph died, Emperor Manuel II took it upon himself to appoint his successor in 1416; having made his choice, he pressed the patriarch to issue the new appointee with 'patriarchal letters'. Such was the importance of the see to Manuel, and such was Manuel's capacity for intervening in church affairs.59

These developments in the region of the Lower Danube have been recounted at length because they illustrate the adaptability of Byzantine monks and churchmen to circumstances: they turned setbacks to their advantage through their ability to harness the energies and resources of 'upwardly mobile' potentates far beyond the empire's territorial bounds. For most of these men of the cloth, the emperor uniquely symbolised the continuity

58 For St Michael's, see Miklosich and Muller, ii, 156-7; Reg. no. 2892.

59 E. Popescu, Christianitas Daco-Romana (Bucharest: Editura Academiei, 1994), 461-3.

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