New York. This rediscovery of the Fathers is the result of the interaction of east and west, as many of these writers left Russia after the communist revolution and settled in the west, especially in Paris and New York. They experienced for themselves the two worlds of Orthodox patristic theology and western critical academic research. This meeting of two cultures has helped Zernov's Russian Renaissance to become an Orthodox Renaissance. The example of Timothy Ware, an Anglican Oxford don who became Orthodox and now writes as Bishop Kallistos of Diokleia, is instructive. His writings are much read and valued.13 They help to integrate a western academic environment and a rigorous Orthodox theology, so suggesting the pivotal role of western Orthodoxy in modern spirituality.
Renewal in theology has remained faithful to its monastic roots, where the encounter with God takes place in a liturgical and ascetical context. This theological tradition is hesychasm, from the Greek fijuxcunós, a term which can be translated as surrendering to silence and which describes the state of leaving behind the fantasies of fallen human existence to enter into the presence of God. The method of achieving this is through ascetic discipline and also the practice of the Jesus Prayer. This prayer takes several forms, based on New Testament sentences such as Luke 18:13, and is usually 'Lord Jesus Christ Son of the Living God, have mercy on me, a sinner.' Continued repetition of this can lead to access to the contemplative state. The origins of hesychasm lie in the early desert monasteries, and its formulation in the writing of Byzantine Fathers, especially Gregory Palamas (1296-1359). The practice was maintained in the monasteries, and especially on Mount Athos. A significant moment in the modern revival of hesychasm was the publication of the Philokalia in 1782. The Philokalia, or love of the beautiful, is a voluminous and disparate anthology of writings of various Fathers on the life of prayer, written between the third and fifteenth centuries, assembled by members of the Kollyvades renewal movement.14 In its - enlarged - Romanian edition, translated by Dumitru Staniloae, it runs to 4650 pages in twelve volumes.15 Paisii Velichkovsky translated the Philokalia into Slavonic in 1793, and Feofan the Recluse into Russian in the following century. There is an English translation
13 The first volume of his collected works is published: K. Ware, The inner kingdom (Crest-wood, NY: St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2001).
14 Kollyvades is derived from the Greek kollyva, the sweetened boiled wheat used at memorial services. The group protested against the practice ofholding these services on Sundays as well as the traditional Saturdays. The compilers of the Philokalia were Makarios of Corinth (1731-1805) and Nikodemos the Hagiorite (1749-1809).
15 Filocalia, sau, Culegere din scrierile sfinfilorparinfi care arata cum sepoate omul curafi, lumina fi desavarsi, trans. D. Staniloae, 12 vols. (Sibiu: Dacia Traiana, 1947-79).
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