summer 1911 as the first step towards a new popular movement in the manner of the seventeenth-century rebel Stenka Razin. 'The Don is the river of popular anger', his supporters proclaimed. 'If only it could speak, it would have much to say about the way that the guileless, simple people struggled for the truth, how they were enemies of "accursed Rus", and how, finally, they became autocracy's best support.'90

On visits to St Petersburg Iliodor took care to be seen at the convent founded in memory of John of Kronstadt, a fellow supporter of the Union of Russian People.91 The church promoted the Kronstadt holy man as a rival to Tolstoy, whose excommunication in 1901 had merely served to stimulate his cult following, but their efforts backfired when Father John himself unexpectedly became an object of veneration.92 Closely acquainted with John's followers, the moderate St Petersburg missionary D. I. Bogoliubov rallied to their defence: 'They are, it is true, people of little education, and therefore inclined to an exaggerated judgement of the people and the things they respect. However, their intentions are good and ascetically Orthodox, and the church has nothing to fear from their existence.'93 But that was not how it seemed to the synod, which condemned the Ioannity as sectarians (khlysty) in 1912. Alarmed by the people's tendency to reject the church's authority in favour of spiritual guides of their own choosing, leading churchmen were equally critical of Ivan Churikov - 'Brother Ivanushka' - whose popular temperance movement, inspired by Father John, drew hundreds of thousands to the Gospel between 1894 and 1913 and survived Churikov's excommunication into the Soviet era.94 Other charismatic individuals attracted smaller followings. And no amount of ecclesiastical vigilance could deter increasing numbers of Russians from abandoning the intricate form of Orthodoxy honed in the theological academies for the reassuring certainties of evangelical Protestantism. Pobedonostsev had warned Alexander II as early as 1880 that 'the masses' would be seduced by Colonel V A. Pashkov's teachings into simplistic conclusions: 'indifference to sin, an empty and fantastic faith, and love of Christ that is both far-fetched and

90 Pravda ob ieromonakhe Iliodore, 77.

91 See the photograph in M. V Shkarovskii, Sviato-Ioannovskii stavropigial'nyi zhenskii monastyr': istoriia obiteli (St Petersburg: Logos, 2001), 94-5.

92 N. Kizenko, Aprodigal saint: FatherJohn ofKronstadtand theRussianpeople (UniversityPark: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000), 197-232, 249-60, verges on the uncritical.

94 Tsentral'nyiistoricheskii gosudarstvennyi arkhivgorod S.-Peterburga, f. 19, op. 97, d. 54; RGIA, f. 796, op. 442, d. 2407, ll. 141-73; Herrlinger, 'Orthodoxy and the factory narod", 352-3; N. I. Iudin, Churikovshchina (sekta 'trezvenikov') (Leningrad: Obshchestvo 'Znanie' RSFSR, 1962).

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