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pre-Christian festivals such as Rusalii and Koliada at the most solemn times of the liturgical year. Folk minstrels (skomorokhi) drew their particular ire. On this issue too, the hierarchy agreed but could see no way to uproot these ancient practices.6

Attacking mnogoglasie was more controversial. Liturgical short cuts had crept into Russian Orthodoxy for good reason. Over the centuries, monastic services had become the norm in parishes, putting severe demands on the patience and stamina of even the most devout laypeople.7 When the first attempts to set some limits to this traditional practice encountered vigorous opposition, Patriarch Iosif retreated, and in 1649, to the reformers' chagrin, a local ecclesiastical council chose to maintain the status quo.8

Paradoxically, the reformers' desire for an orderly and consistent liturgy opened the Muscovite church to books, scholars and school curricula from Ukraine -precisely what Filaret had feared. In the 1640s, the Pechatnyi Dvor published a number of works from Ukraine including the Nomokanon of Zaxarija Kopystens'kyi and the pioneering Slavonic grammar of Meletij Smotryc'skii. Moreover, since the Printing Office desperately needed more editors who knew Greek and Latin, Epifanii Slavynetsky and two other scholars from Ukraine joined its staff in 1649. Finally, from Ukraine came the Book of Faith, an Orthodox compilation of apocalyptic writings interpreting the union of Brest as a prelude to the Last Days, which, along with a Muscovite miscellany, the Kirillova kniga, and the writings of St Ephraim, stimulated apocalyptic reflection among the cultural elite of Moscow.9

The impact of Khmelnytsky's revolt

Between 1648 and 1654 dramatic changes in international politics and upheaval within the commonwealth presented the Orthodox churches with new opportunities and challenges. As the Cossack revolt led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky swept across Ukraine in 1648, Roman Catholics, Uniates and Jews all felt the rebels' wrath to varying degrees. Even though the rebels fought, among other things, for the rights of Orthodoxy, the leaders of the church found the consequences of the uprising to be distinctly ambivalent. Mohyla's immediate

7 Pascal, Avvakum, 58-9.

8 'Deianiia Moskovskago tserkovnogo sobora 1649 goda', ed. S. A. Belokurov, ChOlDR 171 (1894, bookiv), 1-52.

9 A. S. Zernova, Knigi kirillovskoi pechati izdannye v Moskve v XVl-XVll vekakh (Moscow: GosudarstvennaiaOrdenaLeninabibliotekaSSSRimeniV I. Lenina, 1958), 46-77; Pascal, Avvakum, 65-71,128-32; Zenkovsky, Russkoe staroobriadchestvo, 91-101.

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