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faith in the nation and in the values of nationalism. But this is looking ahead. The radical inner transformation of the Orthodox Church was a protracted process with many twists and turns, which in the course ofthe nineteenth and twentieth centuries confronted the Orthodox in south-eastern Europe with many crises of conscience.

The Greek ecclesiastical settlement

Greece's first head of state, Ioannis Kapodistrias, was a devout Orthodox, deeply concerned with the restoration of religious order and Christian morals in the fledgling state emerging from the war of independence. This was reflected in the pertinent initiatives of his administration. One of his main concerns had to do with the preservation of the administrative links between the Orthodox Church in the new Greek state and the ecumenical patriarchate, because Kapodistrias was convinced that the doctrinal communion between the two branches of Greek Orthodoxy might be upset if the administrative links were severed. The president's good intentions, however, were not much helped when in May 1828 Patriarch Agathangelos despatched a mission of four very senior prelates from the patriarchal synod to Greece bringing letters addressed to 'the clergy and notables of the Peloponnese and the Aegean Islands', whereby they were asked to resubmit to the Sublime Porte.3 In a respectful and entirely conciliatory letter, Kapodistrias rejected the patriarch's admonition, pointing out that it was totally impossible for the people of Greece to give up the freedom they had won with so many sacrifices. In contrast to Agathangelos, his successor Konstantios I sent his good wishes and his blessings to the Greek state in August 1830 but expressed his concern about news of Calvinist infiltration among the Orthodox of Greece. Kapodistrias reassured the patriarch about Greece's devotion to Orthodoxy and to the Great Church. This in turn gave Konstantios the opportunity to insist on the complete reestablishment of administrative unity between the church in the territories of the Greek state and the Great Church of Constantinople.4

Things were left at that. Kapodistrias's murder in September 1831 was not only a great tragedy for the Greek state but also a tragedy for the future of relations between the church in Greece and the church of Constantinople. His approach to the ecclesiastical question was probably the only guarantee

3 Manuel Gedeon, üaTpiapxiKoinívaKSs, ed. N. L. Phoropoulos (Athens: Syllogos pros Diadosin Ophelimon Biblion, 1996), 607.

4 E. I. Konstantinides, Txávvqs KanoSíaTpias Kai r¡ SKKArjaiaaTiKij Tou uoáitikt], fifth edition (Athens: A. Papanikolaou, 2001), 73-84.

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