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Wittelsbach, archbishop of Mainz, officiating.49 The archbishop had arrivedthe previous year with instructions from Innocent III to obtain Armenian recognition of Roman primacy and to align Armenian with Roman practice on a number of matters. These included adopting a fixed calendar for regulating the celebration of saints' days rather than the traditional Armenian movable system determined by the Easter cycle, and breaking the Nativity and Lenten fasts with only fish and olive oil.50 Levon summoned a synod in Tarsos to ratify the process. Only twelve bishops signed, but their voice prevailed.51

The growth of pro-western sentiment in various Armenian communities over the twelfth century can be gauged by a series of apocryphal writings such as the Sermo de Antichristo, which enshrined Armenian eschatological expectations associated with the Seljuq invasion. These culminated in the Dasanc' t'ult' (Letter of Concord),52 which purports to relate not only the meeting in Rome between the first Christian kings Constantine I and Trdat III but also - and more importantly - the instruction and consecration of the first Armenian catholicos Gregory the Illuminator by Pope Sylvester. It put forward the claim that the parties agreed to divide the exercise ofecclesiastical and secular authority between them.53 The document's import is obviously that submission to the papacy and a western alliance will be of appreciable benefit in reinforcing the Armenian power base in the Near East. Appeal to its message was frequently made in exchanges with the papacy over the next few centuries.

As already indicated, a close but complex relationship had developed between Cilicia and Antioch. Common interests led them to unite against Byzantium, but internal rivalries occasioned harsh acts of duplicity and reprisal. Since the 1170s Armenian ecclesiastical ambitions had focused on the patriarchate of Antioch. Indeed, one advantage of church union under the pope was to free the Armenian catholicos from interference from the Latin patriarch, who continued to claim jurisdiction over the sees of Tarsos and Mamistra, which

49 S. P. Cowe, 'The inauguration of the Cilician coronation rite and royal ideology', Armenian Review 45 (1992), 51, 54-5.

50 The Armenians had traditionally supplemented these with dairy products.

51 Tanielian, 'Archbishop Nerses Lambronac'i''s commentary on Wisdom of Solomon',

52 K. V Sahnazareanc', Dasanc' ttt'oc' k'nnut'iwnn u herk'ums [Investigation and Refutation of the Letter of Concord] (Paris, 1862).

53 Zaroui Pogossian, 'A revised-diplomatic edition, and a historical and textual investigation of "Letter of love and concordance between the Emperor Constantine the Great and Pope Sylvester and the King of the Armenians Trdat the Great and St. Gregory the Illuminator"', unpublished PhD thesis, Central European University, Budapest (2004).

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