in that ofthe Greeks. The Greek Revolution of 1821 had important effects on the condition of the church and on canonical order. The revolution was disowned and condemned by the patriarch of Constantinople Gregory V, but this action, which proved so controversial subsequently, did not save the patriarch, who was executed for high treason on Easter Sunday, 10 April 1821. He was hanged in front of the central gate of the patriarchate - a gate that has remained closed ever since. The patriarch did not march alone on the road to martyrdom. A host of other senior prelates were executed in Istanbul, including Dionysios of Ephesos, Athanasios of Nikomedeia, Gregory of Derkoi and Eugenios of Anchialos, while at Edirne (Adrianople) an ex-patriarch, Cyril VI, was also hanged. In Cyprus the head of the local autocephalous church, Archbishop Kyprianos, and other senior prelates together with many prominent laymen were executed en masse on 9 July 1821. Crete suffered in a similar way. The head of the local church, Metropolitan Gerasimos, seven bishops and many abbots were executed. Members of the hierarchy were also executed in Thessalonike and Larissa, while of the eight prelates of the Peloponnese who were incarcerated by the Ottoman governor in Tripolis in March 1821, five died in prison before the fall of that city to the Greeks on 23 September 1821. In other words, the revolutionary events in Greece created a host of new martyrs of the faith, martyrs who would eventually be co-opted into the nationalist pantheon as 'ethnomartyrs', thus contributing to the transformation of Orthodoxy's own philosophy and values.

The real and, as it turned out, lasting effects of the rising upon the church came in the form ofthe canonical consequences involved in the loosening ofthe administrative control exercised by the ecclesiastical centre in Constantinople upon the hierarchy and clergy in the provinces which had risen in revolt. The revolutionary conditions empowered the lower clergy by virtue of their intimate involvement in the life of their communities: once the community was up in arms, the local priest, regardless of the canonical edicts emanating from Constantinople, was ipso facto one of the leaders of the revolt. There were many instances of priests or deacons taking up arms themselves and participating in the fighting, some of them rising to pre-eminence among the military leadership of the revolution, gaining renown for their heroism, and eventually joining the pantheon of martyrs of the liberation of Greece, as in the legendary cases of the heroic deacon Athanasios (martyred in 1821) and the fiery archimandrite Gregorios Dikaios Papaflessas, who fell in 1825.

The position of the hierarchy was more complex and more delicate. In one way or another, those bishops who survived the fury of the Turks supported

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